Calculator for Litecoins (LTC) Currency Exchange Rate ...

Litecoin mining!

Since the litecoin community is growing, I've decided to introduce /litecoinmining, a place for all discussion revolving mining litecoins!
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QuarkCoin Cryptocurrency

Quark is a decentralized digital monetary system. It facilitates sending Quarks to Friends, Family Members Online Payments free of charges and charge-backs. Military Grade Encryption. No Bank or Government Control. Quark coins are based on the original idea of Bitcoin but improved, more secure, faster transaction times and zero fees. With improvements to design and security. There is also a greater coin supply with higher block rewards for miners. Quark is fully Open Source.
[link]

03-16 01:25 - 'Is there a site that calculates BTC dominance to include the forked coins? / [link] / Total market cap is 150,000,000,000 / BTC 90B / BCH 3.2B (would not exist without bitcoin obv) / LTC 2.3B (would not exist without bitcoi...' by /u/Just-a-girl3 removed from /r/Bitcoin within 5-15min

'''
Is there a site that calculates BTC dominance to include the forked coins?
[link]1
Total market cap is 150,000,000,000
BTC 90B
BCH 3.2B (would not exist without bitcoin obv)
LTC 2.3B (would not exist without bitcoin)
BSV 2.2B
BTC Dominance isn't 64% if BTC is the only reason these top forks exist ?
There should be a BTC + Fork Calculation tracked somewhere no?
'''
Context Link
Go1dfish undelete link
unreddit undelete link
Author: Just-a-girl3
1: w*w.l**ecoi**atch.c*m/
Unknown links are censored to prevent spreading illicit content.
submitted by removalbot to removalbot [link] [comments]

ETHE & GBTC (Grayscale) Frequently Asked Questions

It is no doubt Grayscale’s booming popularity as a mainstream investment has caused a lot of community hullabaloo lately. As such, I felt it was worth making a FAQ regarding the topic. I’m looking to update this as needed and of course am open to suggestions / adding any questions.
The goal is simply to have a thread we can link to anyone with questions on Grayscale and its products. Instead of explaining the same thing 3 times a day, shoot those posters over to this thread. My hope is that these questions are answered in a fairly simple and easy to understand manner. I think as the sub grows it will be a nice reference point for newcomers.
Disclaimer: I do NOT work for Grayscale and as such am basing all these answers on information that can be found on their website / reports. (Grayscale’s official FAQ can be found here). I also do NOT have a finance degree, I do NOT have a Series 6 / 7 / 140-whatever, and I do NOT work with investment products for my day job. I have an accounting background and work within the finance world so I have the general ‘business’ knowledge to put it all together, but this is all info determined in my best faith effort as a layman. The point being is this --- it is possible I may explain something wrong or missed the technical terms, and if that occurs I am more than happy to update anything that can be proven incorrect
Everything below will be in reference to ETHE but will apply to GBTC as well. If those two segregate in any way, I will note that accordingly.
What is Grayscale? 
Grayscale is the company that created the ETHE product. Their website is https://grayscale.co/
What is ETHE? 
ETHE is essentially a stock that intends to loosely track the price of ETH. It does so by having each ETHE be backed by a specific amount of ETH that is held on chain. Initially, the newly minted ETHE can only be purchased by institutions and accredited investors directly from Grayscale. Once a year has passed (6 months for GBTC) it can then be listed on the OTCQX Best Market exchange for secondary trading. Once listed on OTCQX, anyone investor can purchase at this point. Additional information on ETHE can be found here.
So ETHE is an ETF? 
No. For technical reasons beyond my personal understandings it is not labeled an ETF. I know it all flows back to the “Securities Act Rule 144”, but due to my limited knowledge on SEC regulations I don’t want to misspeak past that. If anyone is more knowledgeable on the subject I am happy to input their answer here.
How long has ETHE existed? 
ETHE was formed 12/14/2017. GBTC was formed 9/25/2013.
How is ETHE created? 
The trust will issue shares to “Authorized Participants” in groups of 100 shares (called baskets). Authorized Participants are the only persons that may place orders to create these baskets and they do it on behalf of the investor.
Source: Creation and Redemption of Shares section on page 39 of the “Grayscale Ethereum Trust Annual Report (2019)” – Located Here
Note – The way their reports word this makes it sound like there is an army of authorizers doing the dirty work, but in reality there is only one Authorized Participant. At this moment the “Genesis” company is the sole Authorized Participant. Genesis is owned by the “Digital Currency Group, Inc.” which is the parent company of Grayscale as well. (And to really go down the rabbit hole it looks like DCG is the parent company of CoinDesk and is “backing 150+ companies across 30 countries, including Coinbase, Ripple, and Chainalysis.”)
Source: Digital Currency Group, Inc. informational section on page 77 of the “Grayscale Bitcoin Trust (BTC) Form 10-K (2019)” – Located Here
Source: Barry E. Silbert informational section on page 75 of the “Grayscale Bitcoin Trust (BTC) Form 10-K (2019)” – Located Here
How does Grayscale acquire the ETH to collateralize the ETHE product? 
An Investor may acquire ETHE by paying in cash or exchanging ETH already owned.
Source: Creation and Redemption of Shares section on page 40 of the “Grayscale Ethereum Trust Annual Report (2019)” – Located Here
Where does Grayscale store their ETH? Does it have a specific wallet address we can follow? 
ETH is stored with Coinbase Custody Trust Company, LLC. I am unaware of any specific address or set of addresses that can be used to verify the ETH is actually there.
As an aside - I would actually love to see if anyone knows more about this as it’s something that’s sort of peaked my interest after being asked about it… I find it doubtful we can find that however.
Source: Part C. Business Information, Item 8, subsection A. on page 16 of the “Grayscale Ethereum Trust Annual Report (2019)” – Located Here
Can ETHE be redeemed for ETH? 
No, currently there is no way to give your shares of ETHE back to Grayscale to receive ETH back. The only method of getting back into ETH would be to sell your ETHE to someone else and then use those proceeds to buy ETH yourself.
Source: Redemption Procedures on page 41 of the “Grayscale Ethereum Trust Annual Report (2019)” – Located Here
Why are they not redeeming shares? 
I think the report summarizes it best:
Redemptions of Shares are currently not permitted and the Trust is unable to redeem Shares. Subject to receipt of regulatory approval from the SEC and approval by the Sponsor in its sole discretion, the Trust may in the future operate a redemption program. Because the Trust does not believe that the SEC would, at this time, entertain an application for the waiver of rules needed in order to operate an ongoing redemption program, the Trust currently has no intention of seeking regulatory approval from the SEC to operate an ongoing redemption program.
Source: Redemption Procedures on page 41 of the “Grayscale Ethereum Trust Annual Report (2019)” – Located Here
What is the fee structure? 
ETHE has an annual fee of 2.5%. GBTC has an annual fee of 2.0%. Fees are paid by selling the underlying ETH / BTC collateralizing the asset.
Source: ETHE’s informational page on Grayscale’s website - Located Here
Source: Description of Trust on page 31 & 32 of the “Grayscale Ethereum Trust Annual Report (2019)” – Located Here
What is the ratio of ETH to ETHE? 
At the time of posting (6/19/2020) each ETHE share is backed by .09391605 ETH. Each share of GBTC is backed by .00096038 BTC.
ETHE & GBTC’s specific information page on Grayscale’s website updates the ratio daily – Located Here
For a full historical look at this ratio, it can be found on the Grayscale home page on the upper right side if you go to Tax Documents > 2019 Tax Documents > Grayscale Ethereum Trust 2019 Tax Letter.
Why is the ratio not 1:1? Why is it always decreasing? 
While I cannot say for certain why the initial distribution was not a 1:1 backing, it is more than likely to keep the price down and allow more investors a chance to purchase ETHE / GBTC.
As noted above, fees are paid by selling off the ETH collateralizing ETHE. So this number will always be trending downward as time goes on.
Source: Description of Trust on page 32 of the “Grayscale Ethereum Trust Annual Report (2019)” – Located Here
I keep hearing about how this is locked supply… explain? 
As noted above, there is currently no redemption program for converting your ETHE back into ETH. This means that once an ETHE is issued, it will remain in circulation until a redemption program is formed --- something that doesn’t seem to be too urgent for the SEC or Grayscale at the moment. Tiny amounts will naturally be removed due to fees, but the bulk of the asset is in there for good.
Knowing that ETHE cannot be taken back and destroyed at this time, the ETH collateralizing it will not be removed from the wallet for the foreseeable future. While it is not fully locked in the sense of say a totally lost key, it is not coming out any time soon.
Per their annual statement:
The Trust’s ETH will be transferred out of the ETH Account only in the following circumstances: (i) transferred to pay the Sponsor’s Fee or any Additional Trust Expenses, (ii) distributed in connection with the redemption of Baskets (subject to the Trust’s obtaining regulatory approval from the SEC to operate an ongoing redemption program and the consent of the Sponsor), (iii) sold on an as-needed basis to pay Additional Trust Expenses or (iv) sold on behalf of the Trust in the event the Trust terminates and liquidates its assets or as otherwise required by law or regulation.
Source: Description of Trust on page 31 of the “Grayscale Ethereum Trust Annual Report (2019)” – Located Here
Grayscale now owns a huge chunk of both ETH and BTC’s supply… should we be worried about manipulation, a sell off to crash the market crash, a staking cartel? 
First, it’s important to remember Grayscale is a lot more akin to an exchange then say an investment firm. Grayscale is working on behalf of its investors to create this product for investor control. Grayscale doesn’t ‘control’ the ETH it holds any more then Coinbase ‘controls’ the ETH in its hot wallet. (Note: There are likely some varying levels of control, but specific to this topic Grayscale cannot simply sell [legally, at least] the ETH by their own decision in the same manner Coinbase wouldn't be able to either.)
That said, there shouldn’t be any worry in the short to medium time-frame. As noted above, Grayscale can’t really remove ETH other than for fees or termination of the product. At 2.5% a year, fees are noise in terms of volume. Grayscale seems to be the fastest growing product in the crypto space at the moment and termination of the product seems unlikely.
IF redemptions were to happen tomorrow, it’s extremely unlikely we would see a mass exodus out of the product to redeem for ETH. And even if there was incentive to get back to ETH, the premium makes it so that it would be much more cost effective to just sell your ETHE on the secondary market and buy ETH yourself. Remember, any redemption is up to the investors and NOT something Grayscale has direct control over.
Yes, but what about [insert criminal act here]… 
Alright, yes. Technically nothing is stopping Grayscale from selling all the ETH / BTC and running off to the Bahamas (Hawaii?). BUT there is no real reason for them to do so. Barry is an extremely public figure and it won’t be easy for him to get away with that. Grayscale’s Bitcoin Trust creates SEC reports weekly / bi-weekly and I’m sure given the sentiment towards crypto is being watched carefully. Plus, Grayscale is making tons of consistent revenue and thus has little to no incentive to give that up for a quick buck.
That’s a lot of ‘happy little feels’ Bob, is there even an independent audit or is this Tether 2.0? 
Actually yes, an independent auditor report can be found in their annual reports. It is clearly aimed more towards the financial side and I doubt the auditors are crypto savants, but it is at least one extra set of eyes. Auditors are Friedman LLP – Auditor since 2015.
Source: Independent Auditor Report starting on page 116 (of the PDF itself) of the “Grayscale Ethereum Trust Annual Report (2019)” – Located Here
As mentioned by user TheCrpytosAndBloods (In Comments Below), a fun fact:
The company’s auditors Friedman LLP were also coincidentally TetheBitfinex’s auditors until They controversially parted ways in 2018 when the Tether controversy was at its height. I am not suggesting for one moment that there is anything shady about DCG - I just find it interesting it’s the same auditor.
“Grayscale sounds kind of lame” / “Not your keys not your crypto!” / “Why is anyone buying this, it sounds like a scam?” 
Welp, for starters this honestly is not really a product aimed at the people likely to be reading this post. To each their own, but do remember just because something provides no value to you doesn’t mean it can’t provide value to someone else. That said some of the advertised benefits are as follows:
So for example, I can set up an IRA at a brokerage account that has $0 trading fees. Then I can trade GBTC and ETHE all day without having to worry about tracking my taxes. All with the relative safety something like E-Trade provides over Binance.
As for how it benefits the everyday ETH holder? I think the supply lock is a positive. I also think this product exposes the Ethereum ecosystem to people who otherwise wouldn’t know about it.
Why is there a premium? Why is ETHE’s premium so insanely high compared to GBTC’s premium? 
There are a handful of theories of why a premium exists at all, some even mentioned in the annual report. The short list is as follows:
Why is ETHE’s so much higher the GBTC’s? Again, a few thoughts:

Are there any other differences between ETHE and GBTC? 
I touched on a few of the smaller differences, but one of the more interesting changes is GBTC is now a “SEC reporting company” as of January 2020. Which again goes beyond my scope of knowledge so I won’t comment on it too much… but the net result is GBTC is now putting out weekly / bi-weekly 8-K’s and annual 10-K’s. This means you can track GBTC that much easier at the moment as well as there is an extra layer of validity to the product IMO.
I’m looking for some statistics on ETHE… such as who is buying, how much is bought, etc? 
There is a great Q1 2020 report I recommend you give a read that has a lot of cool graphs and data on the product. It’s a little GBTC centric, but there is some ETHE data as well. It can be found here hidden within the 8-K filings.Q1 2020 is the 4/16/2020 8-K filing.
For those more into a GAAP style report see the 2019 annual 10-K of the same location.
Is Grayscale only just for BTC and ETH? 
No, there are other products as well. In terms of a secondary market product, ETCG is the Ethereum Classic version of ETHE. Fun Fact – ETCG was actually put out to the secondary market first. It also has a 3% fee tied to it where 1% of it goes to some type of ETC development fund.
In terms of institutional and accredited investors, there are a few ‘fan favorites’ such as Bitcoin Cash, Litcoin, Stellar, XRP, and Zcash. Something called Horizion (Backed by ZEN I guess? Idk to be honest what that is…). And a diversified Mutual Fund type fund that has a little bit of all of those. None of these products are available on the secondary market.
Are there alternatives to Grayscale? 
I know they exist, but I don’t follow them. I’ll leave this as a “to be edited” section and will add as others comment on what they know.
Per user Over-analyser (in comments below):
Coinshares (Formerly XBT provider) are the only similar product I know of. BTC, ETH, XRP and LTC as Exchange Traded Notes (ETN).
It looks like they are fully backed with the underlying crypto (no premium).
https://coinshares.com/etps/xbt-provideinvestor-resources/daily-hedging-position
Denominated in SEK and EUR. Certainly available in some UK pensions (SIPP).
As asked by pegcity - Okay so I was under the impression you can just give them your own ETH and get ETHE, but do you get 11 ETHE per ETH or do you get the market value of ETH in USD worth of ETHE? 
I have always understood that the ETHE issued directly through Grayscale is issued without the premium. As in, if I were to trade 1 ETH for ETHE I would get 11, not say only 2 or 3 because the secondary market premium is so high. And if I were paying cash only I would be paying the price to buy 1 ETH to get my 11 ETHE. Per page 39 of their annual statement, it reads as follows:
The Trust will issue Shares to Authorized Participants from time to time, but only in one or more Baskets (with a Basket being a block of 100 Shares). The Trust will not issue fractions of a Basket. The creation (and, should the Trust commence a redemption program, redemption) of Baskets will be made only in exchange for the delivery to the Trust, or the distribution by the Trust, of the number of whole and fractional ETH represented by each Basket being created (or, should the Trust commence a redemption program, redeemed), which is determined by dividing (x) the number of ETH owned by the Trust at 4:00 p.m., New York time, on the trade date of a creation or redemption order, after deducting the number of ETH representing the U.S. dollar value of accrued but unpaid fees and expenses of the Trust (converted using the ETH Index Price at such time, and carried to the eighth decimal place), by (y) the number of Shares outstanding at such time (with the quotient so obtained calculated to one one-hundred-millionth of one ETH (i.e., carried to the eighth decimal place)), and multiplying such quotient by 100 (the “Basket ETH Amount”). All questions as to the calculation of the Basket ETH Amount will be conclusively determined by the Sponsor and will be final and binding on all persons interested in the Trust. The Basket ETH Amount multiplied by the number of Baskets being created or redeemed is the “Total Basket ETH Amount.” The number of ETH represented by a Share will gradually decrease over time as the Trust’s ETH are used to pay the Trust’s expenses. Each Share represented approximately 0.0950 ETH and 0.0974 ETH as of December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively.

submitted by Bob-Rossi to ethfinance [link] [comments]

Fiat Currency to Cryptocurrency Calculator. Real-time rates from multiple exchanges.

Hey,
Developed a small project that helps you calculate the equivalent amount from fiat money to cryptocurrencies and vice-versa.
Website - Pingrates ( https://pingrates.herokuapp.com/ )
Currently, it supports five cryptocurrencies. Looking to add more later on.
Primarily it supports three fiat currencies and many more by using appropriate exchange rates. For all other currencies rates are calculated using USD Rates and Coinbase Forex rates.
Currently, it provides live rates from three Exchanges. Working on adding more soon!
Notification Alerts
For Desktop user's Notification Alerts are provided which will be delivered using Web Notifications. Just Allow Notifications in Browser and you will receive small popups whenever the conditions are met.
If you have any issues, queries, or find any bugs please comment down or contact me on the E-mail ID provided on the website.
submitted by dev_46 to CryptoCurrencyTrading [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Cash To AUD - BTC To LTC Exchange

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Ethereum Calculator AUD

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submitted by hagvu007 to u/hagvu007 [link] [comments]

I've created dark themed LibreOffice Personal Finance workbook (x-post from r/personalfinance)

The workbook can be found here:

It contains:
MAIN Sheet
Transactions Sheet
Expenses Sheet
NLTHP Sheet
NLTHP Cash Sheet

Possible future sheets:

Supported currencies:

Supported conversions to:

The workbook is free and open source, does not contain any macros and all 4 external links to exchange sites are contained in a single sheet which can be removed if needed.
If anyone has any questions or suggestions you can leave a comment, or send me a DM on Reddit or Matrix.
submitted by xxkoes to libreoffice [link] [comments]

MXC Exchange – One-stop Service Provider

MXC Exchange – One-stop Service Provider
Established in 2018, MXC has become a one-stop service provider. It is now able to provide users spot, margin, contract, leveraged ETF, Index Products, Contract, PoS Staking, OTC services.
It emerges as one of the fastest growing exchanges in the world. In 2019, the daily trading volume of MXC took 5% of the world’s digital market. Besides, leveraged ETF products on MXC took lion share in the world of the same kind of products based on data from CryptoRank. On top of that, It obtained regulation-compliance licenses in many countries, like U.S., Canada, Australia, etc. and is able to carry out digital asset service in these countries.
https://preview.redd.it/xmdorlqtjt951.png?width=1298&format=png&auto=webp&s=b791ee9dc47ff43cca9bf281cacbc05a61fa2632
In the aspect of OTC trading, MXC established partnership with Simplex, a European regulation-compliance payment company, and Banxa, a legal payment company in South-east Asia, allowing users to use Visa and Mastercard to buy cryptocurrencies, like BTC, ETH, etc. directly.
In the aspect of spot trading, MXC now support over 200 trading pairs. In addition to the top market cap coins and token, it has listed many high-quality DeFi projects, like COMP, MKR, SNX, KNC, LEND, REN, BNT, IDEX, SWTH, OKS, RUNE, KAVA, BAL, UMA, etc. as well as projects of Polkadot ecosystem, like KSM, EDG, PCX, RING, etc.
In the aspect of margin trading, MXC supports the largest number of margin pairs among all exchanges across the globe, with 2 – 10x leverage available. The automatic loan and repayment functions are available. With the coming of the upgraded margin system, the depth, price difference, loan efficiency and matching efficiency have greatly updated.
In the aspect of leveraged ETF, MXC, learned from traditional financial products, introduced in re-balance system, so there’s no liquidation risks in buying leveraged ETF products. Leveraged ETF tracks the changes of the underlying assets with 3x leverage. “3L” products refer to 3x long, while “3S” products 3x short. Now it 3x leverage for 29 cryptocurrencies, including BTC, BCH, BSV, DASH, ZEC, ATOM, XTZ, ALGO, etc.
In the extreme market on March 12, 2020, BTC plummeted a high of 52.36% and the ordinary 3x leverage products for BTC plunged by 157.08%. However, with the re-balance system, the BTC3L product on MXC decreased by 92.96%, lower than the ordinary 3x leverage products and protect the interest of users in some extent. Furthermore, in the following market, the BTC3L product rose by 236%, higher than the 167.41% of ordinary 3x leverage product.
The leveraged ETF once became the label of MXC, "Huobi's OTC, OKex’s contract, MXC’s ETF and Binance's spot." The popularity of leveraged ETFs has attracted many exchanges to follow suit.
In terms of index products, MXC officially launched index products under the ETF zone, including decentralized storage asset index, mainstream cryptocurrency index, DeFi asset index, public chain index, 2020 halving cryptocurrency index.
MXC index products are similar to traditional financial fund products, and each index product is composed of multiple constituent cryptocurrencies. According to the announcement, the MXC Index product will be adjusted according to the average daily turnover ratio of the previous 30 days, that is, the proportion of the component cryptocurrency will be adjusted. If the target does not meet the representativeness and investability, the index may be removed from the product.
Decentralized storage combination components are STORJ, LAMB, GNX, BLZ; mainstream currency combination, components are BTC, ETH, LTC, EOS, ETC, BCH, BSV, XRP; DeFi asset components are KNC, ZRX, KAVA, NEST; Public chain combination, the components are TRX, VET, NEO, QTUM, BTM, ONT, IOST; halving index components are BTC, ETC, BCH, BSV, ZEC, DASH.
Index products can help users not miss the bull market. Any one of the constituent cryptocurrencies increase, the user can make gains. Secondly, it can help avoid the risk of a single cryptocurrency’s plunging. In addition, it can also help save investment time and improve investment efficiency.
In terms of contract transactions, MXC upgraded the contract trading system and launched a new version of the contract in June this year. MXC contract trading currently supports free adjustment of 1-100x leverage multiples. In the isolated margin mode, users can still adjust the leverage multiples after opening a position, and support isolated margin conversion to cross margin, which can help users pursue the market with all their strength.
It supports users to place stop profit and stop loss orders at the same time, while occupying only one margin. It supports Post Only (Maker only) and IOC (Immediately or cancel all) strategies. Under Post Only (Maker only), the user will not immediately place an order on the market when placing an order, to ensure that the order is always Maker (pending order), saving handling fees. IOC function, that is, if the order cannot be fully executed, the rest will be cancelled.
For example, the BTC price index of MXC selects the bitcoin spot prices of 6 exchanges, namely: Coinbase, Bitstamp, Binance, Huobi, OKEx, Bitfinex. If the spot price of an exchange deviates from the median of all exchanges by ±3%, the spot price of the exchange is calculated according to the median of ±3%. Use reasonable prices for liquidation, which are based on index prices.
In addition, underlined proper nouns on the webpage, as long as the mouse points up, the corresponding explanation will be displayed, which is convenient for users to understand.
In terms of PoS pools, MXC supports three types of PoS: Saving, Staking and Lending. Among them, PoS saving does not need to lock assets, and holding assets can obtain income.
submitted by SimonZhu666 to MXCexchange [link] [comments]

Addressing Common Arguments For Limiting BTC's Block Size

For a while, I've seen many BTC maximalists bring up arguments about why the block size for Bitcoin should be limited to 1 MB. I have made this post to address most of these arguments. If you disagree, feel free to make your point in the comments!

Limiting block size is what helps keep nodes cheap, and helps decentralize Bitcoin.
Let's do some math here...
With the block size of BTC being 1.00 MB, and having ~144 blocks a day, 365 days a year, there are roughly 52,560 blocks in a year. Using this data, 52.5 GB of storage will be used up in an entire year (we'll make the assumption that someone running a node buys 1 hard drive a year to store all this data).
Looking at Amazon, the average cost for 64.0 GB of storage capacity for a flash drive is roughly $10.00. This means on average, someone running a node is paying roughly 80 cents per month for storage. Okay, now let's look at the internet aspect of things. The average internet speed globally is around ~75 Mbps (which is more than enough for both BTC and BCH) and will likely run for around ~$40 a month (this is a rough figure, and slightly pessimistic, but let's take it). Therefore, doing some math:
($40.00/month + $0.80/month) x 12 months = ~$490.00/year
Okay, so it roughly costs $490.00 a year which is just a little over $1/day for running a node. Let's see how much more expensive BCH is when running the same type of node:
For BCH, everything stays the same, except for storage costs. Since the block size is 32 times bigger than BTC, doing the math, BCH will take up roughly 1.7 TB of data. For a 2 TB hard drive, the cost is roughly $60. For an entire year, that will cost about $5 per month for storage.
Taking this into consideration, we can calculate how much it will cost to run a BCH node for storage and internet:
($40.00/month + $5.00/month) x 12 months = ~$540.00/year
So in conclusion:
BTC Node BCH Node
Price (yearly) $490.00 $540.00
Price (monthly) ~$40.80 ~$45.00
As we can see, it really isn't that much more expensive, and this isn't even factoring in how much cheaper digital storage will become over time. As digital storage becomes bigger, we can also expand block size, and not have to worry about centralization.

The market has decided that BTC is better, therefore BCH is not Bitcoin.
While yes, based on hashing power, this is true, Bitcoin being Bitcoin is not about hashing power. It is about what Bitcoin was intended to do. Bitcoin was created by Satoshi as a form of peer-to-peer electronic cash system. Even in the whitepaper of Bitcoin, Bitcoin is not working the way it was intended to. From the whitepaper:

The cost of mediation increases transaction costs, limiting the minimum practical transaction size and cutting off the possibility for small casual transactions.
It says it right here, one of the issues with current forms electronic payments is high transaction fees, and how they make small, everyday purchases expensive, making it bad for regular, everyday purchases.
Currently, looking at the fees, BTC costs roughly $0.50 for every transaction (fees vary every single block, but this is the current average), regardless of the transaction amount. That means if I'm making a purchase at a coffee shop for $2.00, it is going to cost me $2.50 effectively for the coffee. That means that I am paying 25% of my transaction value just to transfer my own money. What incentive would I have to make that purchase, especially when I could just use normal cash, and not pay ridiculously high fees for a normal transaction?
Let's compare this to BCH. Right now, the average fee for BCH is about $0.0025 for every transaction. When comparing that even to a $2 purchase, the fee is negligible and makes effectively no difference to the transaction amount. As we can see, BCH is far cheaper for everyday normal transactions, a.k.a. electronic cash.

Bitcoin only has high transaction fees because of the higher transaction volume, and Bitmain has spammed transactions to make BTC look bad.
As far as I know, I don't recall Bitmain spamming transactions on the network (I could be wrong on this). If someone has evidence of this, I will gladly retract this. As for transaction volume (number of transactions), we can use comparable numbers from when BCH and BTC were both having extremely high transaction volumes:
Date (DD/MM/YYYY) No. of transactions (BTC) No. of transactions (BCH) Average Transaction Fee (BTC) Average Transaction Fee (BCH)
19/08/2018 167k 129k $0.65 $0.0033
15/11/2018 241k 688k $0.74 $0.0018
19/11/2018 268k 283k $0.79 $0.0007
20/11/2018 288k 329k $1.11 $0.0006
01/09/2019 285k 575k $0.68 $0.0007
Note: The peak fees for both blockchains were $52.00 for BTC and $0.90 (which is still bad for BCH. The difference is that BCH has taken steps to ensure that kind of transaction fee would never happen again, even faced with the same amount of traffic on the network.)

The Lightning Network (an off-chain solution) is a better solution to Bitcoin's current problem than increasing the block size (an on-chain solution), and has a much higher transactions per second capability than BCH.
Yes, the Lightning Network may have a higher transaction per second capability when compared to BCH, but it comes at a cost: centralization.
The aim of Bitcoin was to make a peer-to-peer electronic cash system with a high transaction per second capability, but it also is supposed to have 3 distinct properties to it. Bitcoin should also be:
  1. Cheap (fees should be negligible, no matter how low the transaction amount)
  2. Decentralized
  3. Secure
When you take away any one of these characteristics, it becomes A LOT easier to make a currency with a higher transaction input capability, but it ignores the goal of what Bitcoin is supposed to be. For example, if you have a system of cash that is:

Cheap and secure, but not decentralized:
XRP (Ripple)
Credit Cards
Paypal
Lightning Network

Cheap and decentralized, but not secure:
LTC (Litecoin)
(DOGE) Dogecoin
Plenty of other low-use altcoins

Secure and Decentralized, but not cheap:
BTC (Bitcoin)
XMR (Monero)

BCH manages to have all 3 characteristics, all while having a transaction capability of more than 200 transactions per second. Not to mention that setting up a node on the Lightning Network is a complicated, tedious, and painful process to go through, just to put your fund somewhere where they aren't safe (you risk losing your funds pretty easily, especially if you're an everyday person who doesn't have much knowledge when it comes to technology). Not only is this the case, but eventually the funds from the Lightning Network will have to be settled on the blockchain, and when adoption increases, the fees will increase as well, meaning that you will be charged a ridiculously high amount for withdrawing your own money.
To add to this, nodes that are run by people with more resources will eventually become Lightning Hubs, meaning that they are the only few who you can go through to send a transaction to whoever you want. This makes Lightning Hubs the new intermediaries for financial transactions. Does this all sound familiar? It is literally banking right now, but with the name 'Bitcoin' slapped on top of it.

Anyway, these are all the arguments I have heard from BTC maximalists. If you have any more arguments, feel free to comment them below, and I'm willing to change my mind if you make a good point.
submitted by 1MightBeAPenguin to btc [link] [comments]

Me, and my developers made amazing Crypto App, and I need your advice how to sell it.

Hello Reddit. So, I won't write too long don't read text. With 10 people team in 16 months we made an awesome app. It costs us about 300k Euro, and it works very awesome. I think, if we will have.money to fight with market it will be most popular application. But we don't have a lot of money to fight with apps with great position. We decided to sell this application, but I don't have an idea how to find buyer. So, I'll quickly describe how it worked and if I'll see that you are interested to know more about that I'll relaunch demo of this app (it disappeared from appstore, and we turned off all of hosts.)
Fulmo - cryptocurrency exchange, payments, store and very fast transfers.
What makes this app special?
  1. So, if you have to pay with crypto by Fulmo, and you have money on Fulmo, payment is fully completed with less than second. We made an internal transactions system for customers and merchants to make cryptos very fast (inside our system).
  2. You can send money to grandpa like in Revolut. If your grandpa, mom, or friend has Fulmo, you can just send them money with message, and it costs you nothing.
  3. You can swap Cryptos with pairs don't exist on any market. For example, you have ETH and want to buy Ripple, but (in theory) this pair don't exist (in market you have to sell ETH with USD, and then buy Ripple with USD). We coped with that problem, and we first FIND the shortest way to buy XRP with ETH without your actions, easly and fast calculating price of exchange.
  4. Local merchants. Imagine you are living in Venesuela. You started day, and you want to eat carrot soup. You can go to old woman on your street corner. In 10 minutes on your way price of carrot changed from 10 of local currency to 1000 of local currency (hello inflation). But, you know that price of carrot in Dollar is stable, and you know that old woman has Fulmo on her phone. She has to just open app, provide price in dollars and show you QR code (note that it can be even NFC). You scan her qr, and pay in one second. She don't need to be registered merchant with registered shop (because in real, she isn't, she just selling carrots, and tomatos).
  5. It looks really amazing. We spent a lot of money for design.
  6. We accept a lot of cryptos, owner can provide new in seconds, its all normalized and in backend there is no difference between Fiat and Crypto. You need only transactions and prices provider.
Cryptos we already connected are: - BTC (yeah, father is mandatory) - LTC - ETH - ETH Tokens - LTC (and some cryptos based on LTC/BTC) - LIGHTNING NETWORK (what is really awesome)
Why aren't we the biggest crypto market now? We don't have money. Budget was calculated for 2 years, but some investors decided to don't invest after Bitcoin prices are falled down. Im not angry for them, its business. We (as software company) invested about 20% of all.
Are we interested to continue developing this app, if we find buyer? Sure! It was really great experience to create it, i miss it really.
Okay, so if i'll see that somebody is interested (even only to see how it works) ill run dev enviroment with "fake" money, and show you everything.
So, business Redditors, do you thing that its interesting? How to sell this product? Maybe you know somebody interested of that?
submitted by flumoo to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

The Best Cryptocurrency Mining Pools in 2020

This review is not sponsored! Neither it is an ad.
How to choose a mining pool? How to avoid stale shares? The pros and cons of different services.

What is a cryptocurrency mining pool?

A “mining pool" is a server that distributes the task of calculating the block signature between all connected participants. The contribution of each of them is evaluated using the so-called “shares”, which are potential candidates for receiving a signature. As soon as one of the “shares” hits the target, the pool announces the readiness of the block and distributes the reward.
However, if you participate in the pool, then you will have to share the profit with all the participants in the pool, but for the majority, this usually is the most profitable option.

Which pool is better for mining?

The best mining pools should meet the following criteria:

Key selection criteria

To select a good pool for each specific cryptocurrency, you need to carefully study all the information available about it on its website and on the forums.
To reduce the number of stale shares, it is better to mine on the pool closest to the miner. You can choose the fastest mining pool by studying the information about the processing speed of the share in the mining program or by pinging the time it takes for the signal to pass from the miner's computer to the servers of the pool.

10 most popular and powerful pools: Description

ViaBTC

Coins: BTC, BCH, BSV, LTC, ETH, ETC, ZEC, DASH, XMR, CKB
Commission: 3%, lifetime discount: 1%

EMCD

Coins: BTC, BSV, BCH, LTC, ETC, ETH, DASH
Commission: 0%. There is a donation option: 0.5% of the income

Ethermine

Coins: ETH, ETC, ZEC
Commission: 1%

F2pool

Coins: BTC, LTC, and many other coins
Commission: 3-5%

NanoPool

Coins: XMR, ETH, ETC, SiaCoin, ZEC, PASC, ETN
Commission:1%

Mining Pool Hub

Coins: BTC, BSV, BCH, LTC
Commission: 0.9%

NiceHash

Coins: BTC, ETH, XRP, BCH, LTC, ZEC, DASH, XLM, EOS, USDT, LINK, BAT, ZRX, HOT, OMG, REP, BTG, NEXO, MATIC, ENJ, SNT, ELF, BNT, KNC, POLY, MTL + 20 more.
Commission: 2-5%

Coinotron

Coins: ETH, ETC, PASC, LTC, Zcash, BTG, DASH, FTC, VTC
Commission: 1-1.5%

Monero Mining Pool

Coins: XMR
Commission: 2%

Baikalmine

Coins: ETH, ETC, MOAC, CLO
Commission: 0.5-1%

Independent Pool Statistics

To make sure that the pools work and really exist, check independent sources. These are:
Keep up with the news of the crypto world at CoinJoy.io Follow us on Twitter and Medium. Subscribe to our YouTube channel. Join our Telegram channel. For any inquiries mail us at [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]).
submitted by CoinjoyAssistant to dogemining [link] [comments]

06-27 20:54 - 'Me, and my developers made amazing Crypto App, and I need your advice how to sell it.' (self.Bitcoin) by /u/flumoo removed from /r/Bitcoin within 0-10min

'''
Hello Reddit. So, I won't write too long don't read text. With 10 people team in 16 months we made an awesome app. It costs us about 300k Euro, and it works very awesome. I think, if we will have.money to fight with market it will be most popular application. But we don't have a lot of money to fight with apps with great position. We decided to sell this application, but I don't have an idea how to find buyer. So, I'll quickly describe how it worked and if I'll see that you are interested to know more about that I'll relaunch demo of this app (it disappeared from appstore, and we turned off all of hosts.)
Fulmo - cryptocurrency exchange, payments, store and very fast transfers.
What makes this app special?
  1. So, if you have to pay with crypto by Fulmo, and you have money on Fulmo, payment is fully completed with less than second. We made an internal transactions system for customers and merchants to make cryptos very fast (inside our system).
  2. You can send money to grandpa like in Revolut. If your grandpa, mom, or friend has Fulmo, you can just send them money with message, and it costs you nothing.
  3. You can swap Cryptos with pairs don't exist on any market. For example, you have ETH and want to buy Ripple, but (in theory) this pair don't exist (in market you have to sell ETH with USD, and then buy Ripple with USD). We coped with that problem, and we first FIND the shortest way to buy XRP with ETH without your actions, easly and fast calculating price of exchange.
  4. Local merchants. Imagine you are living in Venesuela. You started day, and you want to eat carrot soup. You can go to old woman on your street corner. In 10 minutes on your way price of carrot changed from 10 of local currency to 1000 of local currency (hello inflation). But, you know that price of carrot in Dollar is stable, and you know that old woman has Fulmo on her phone. She has to just open app, provide price in dollars and show you QR code (note that it can be even NFC). You scan her qr, and pay in one second. She don't need to be registered merchant with registered shop (because in real, she isn't, she just selling carrots, and tomatos).
  5. It looks really amazing. We spent a lot of money for design.
  6. We accept a lot of cryptos, owner can provide new in seconds, its all normalized and in backend there is no difference between Fiat and Crypto. You need only transactions and prices provider.
Cryptos we already connected are: - BTC (yeah, father is mandatory) - LTC - ETH - ETH Tokens - LTC (and some cryptos based on LTC/BTC) - LIGHTNING NETWORK (what is really awesome)
Why aren't we the biggest crypto market now? We don't have money. Budget was calculated for 2 years, but some investors decided to don't invest after Bitcoin prices are falled down. Im not angry for them, its business. We (as software company) invested about 20% of all.
Are we interested to continue developing this app, if we find buyer? Sure! It was really great experience to create it, i miss it really.
Okay, so if i'll see that somebody is interested (even only to see how it works) ill run dev enviroment with "fake" money, and show you everything.
So, business Redditors, do you thing that its interesting? How to sell this product? Maybe you know somebody interested of that?
'''
Me, and my developers made amazing Crypto App, and I need your advice how to sell it.
Go1dfish undelete link
unreddit undelete link
Author: flumoo
submitted by removalbot to removalbot [link] [comments]

This sub is a mess and needs to get out of the anger stage: How to move forward from the crash if you're a bagholder

Back in December 2017 I did a valuation attempt of Bitcoin on this sub and got around 5K with some grossly optimistic assumptions. Its taken a long time but finally gone down below that.
You've probably heard many people tell you it would eventually happen back in December 2017 and to reduce expose to crypto (including me), but when you're hyped up on 20% gains every week its hard to be cautious or engage in defensive measures. To many the last quarter of 2017 and into early 2018 was like a beach party with coke and Victoria Secret models. Who wants to listen to someone tell you about how you're gonna crash hard with a headache the next morning?
With this latest crash, Bitcoin's price is back to roughly mid October 2017, which is roughly when the mainstream mania started. Many on this sub entered after October 2017 and hence are now left holding heavy bags. Many are down 80% or even 90%. Here is the current losses from ATH for the top cryptos:
Asset Loss from ATH
BTC -77%
XRP - 88%
ETH -90%
BCH -95%
XLM -79%
EOS -83%
LTC -91%
ADA -96%
XMR -85%
TRN -96%

Who do we blame?

At a time like this its easy to get angry, to look at someone to blame. Whether Roger Ver and the hash wars, whether BAAKT delay, whether whales or SEC or institutions, everyone has their favorite boogeyman. No one thing is the reason why the market is down 80%.
The reality is that Bitcoin (and all other crypto by extension) was ovevalued even by grossly overoptimistic measures. Its not BAKKT or the whales trying to get your coins for cheap. The same people who were buying at near peak bubble thinking they were getting into the chance of a lifetime are prone to look for someone to blame for their losses, when it was actually their fault for buying near the end of a mania.
Nobody wants to admit that it was their own greed, lack of research and irrational behavior that lead to the gross overvaluation of all cryptocurrency.

Is it over yet?

The $6K consolidation was likely a result of the market coiling tighter and tighter around the mining breakeven point for some of the smaller miners. The big firms in China are profitable mining below 6K, but many smaller ones in the US and Europe aren't. You can actually see the total hash rate going down. Once it broke it was a big fall straight down.
Bitcoin is mined at 12.5 BTC. per block at 10 minute blocks, which comes out to around 1800 BTC every day. This 1800 BTC has to be absorbed by every day, which means the following at different price levels:
Price Level Daily net buying needed to absorb mined coins
6000 $10.8 million/day
4500 $8.1 million/day
3000 $5.4 million/day
At the current price, at least theoretically $8.4 million in demand is needed to cover the mining output. Of course the miners don't immediately dump it all, but it shows why miners have an incentive to keep the price high and try to incite FOMO with a BGD.
I can also see that after this latest drop, the "buy the dip" sentiment had substantially gone down, at least compared to the other fast drops in price. This is especially discouraging those who were waiting for the "November bull run", which never came. Its clear to more people now that this probably isn't just downward correction that will reverse, but a multiyear bear market. This is why the bounce has been so weak compared to earlier in the year. Compare that to the last two big 2 day drops:
The weakness of this current bounce says it all, people are no longer optimistic that BAKKT or ETF or any other catalyst will lead to a bull run that they can cash out quick. It may be a period of stagnation followed by further drops as big holders take profits.
I also think that the FED tightening with rate hikes is leading to a lot more volatility not only in stocks, but crypto as well. Right now asset deflation seems to be a global macro risk as cheap credit dries up, and Bitcoin surely isn't immune from this.
My personal view is that at this point we may see further declines, but calling what's going to happen next is always dangerous. A whale (especially a big mining operation) with a series of large orders to clear out the order book on Bitfinex could give us a BGD out of nowhere at any time and take us back to 6K, it would be interesting to see how the market reacts to something like that. But I'm not betting on it leading to any sustained rally past 10K. Quite the opposite.
So what's a crypto shrimp to do? I'll split my thoughts into two, for those who are still in the green and those in the loss.

If you're still in the green

If you're still in profit, this is a great time to consider how much more downward selling you can take and also how you can hedge downward risk.
If you're someone who purchased when Bitcoin was below $1000, you should calculate your compounded annual ROI and decide if that return is good enough for you. For equities, the long term average is about 10% per year, 20-30% in a good bull market.
Its your decision, but taking out profits that exceed principal and reinvesting the principal is not at all a bad idea. For those who invested before Bitcoin reached $1K (April 2017) the current price is still an insane return that no other asset class can match.
Another important thing is to think about how you can hedge the risk of downward movement. This is where derivative exchanges are very useful, although you do need to do some research on how derivatives work and how to not get liquidated. If you have substantial holdings, the effort to learn this is worth it.
The basic idea is that you can buy short contracts that increase in value as Bitcoin goes down, proportional to the amount of leverage you put to finance the contract. If managed correctly, you can protect your entire stack with a portion as leverage. Its something commonly done by miners, who short Bitcoin with derivatives to hedge their holdings.

If you're in the loss

The untold reality is that HODL is a meme told to newbies to prevent panic selling during a downturn while the smart money cashes out in a more orderly fashion. But does that mean you shouldn't hold if you're already down massively?
Well that depends on your own life situation, how much you've invested, and if you don't need the money for the next few years.
Mathematically, whether it drops to 4.5K or 3K from the reference of 6K is highly meaningful, its a drop of 25% or 50%. But if your reference starting point is much higher, then it really doesn't matter all that much. A drop from 17K to 4.5K is a 74% loss while down to 3K it would be 82%, massive losses either way. In that sense if this is money you don't need, it makes sense to simply have it stored in a wallet and forget about it for a few years. Who cares if it drops further after a certain point if you don't plan to take it out for a while? Its like in equities markets where people with massive losses don't sell, but instead move the loss position into their retirement fund where they don't plan to take it out for a long time and thus are giving it time to rebound back.
But what if its money you need? What if like many out there you took out loans hoping to catch a run to 50K? If you have high interest debt (credit cards...etc), focus on paying that down first. Credit cards generally have high interest and many compound daily, so pay down the debt first rather than trying to pay your debts off with a crypto bull run that may take years to materialize.
This is also a good learning opportunity. It is worrying how few people who hold crypto have a clue what any of this even is or how it works. I've always recommended this video to explain how Bitcoin (and other cryptocurrencies) actually work.
A good thing to do during catastrophic losses is to honestly access why you got suckered into buying high in the first place. Most people here are young, and this is a valuable lesson in why you shouldn't follow the herd. Everyone is a genius in a bull market, everyone is chasing the next hype. Crypto tends to attract people looking for a get-rich-quick-without-effort crowd, but it takes some mental effort to understand this beyond the buzzwords. Take the time to understand the fundamental reasons why an asset has value and what factors would drive its rise once the hype dies down. What makes Bitcoin valuable, what makes some of the other cryptoassets valuable? If those fundamentals in some way changes, so should your opinion.
Its also a great opportunity to help in its adoption by using it. The irony of it all is that people demand that they get rich because of the hard work of buying a bunch of crypto in an exchange and transferring it to their wallet, without any understanding what they're buying into.
Also don't be angry. Don't look to blame. Look to learn and improve next time you invest.
submitted by arsonbunny to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Building Ergo: Atomic Swaps

Because a blockchain is a siloed, self-contained system by design, interacting with other blockchain protocols is challenging. Atomic Swaps enable cross-chain exchange of digital assets, avoiding the need for centralised exchanges.
Blockchains are excellent at decentralised value transfer within their own domains. That is, you can send BTC to any Bitcoin address securely and easily, and you can send LTC to any Litecoin address securely and easily too.
But because blockchains are based on consensus between miners, they are not designed to interface with other blockchains. Trading assets on different blockchains has therefore traditionally involved third parties like exchanges and OTC desks – with all the risks and inefficiencies they bring.
Cross-chain swaps
Atomic swaps solve this problem by enabling cryptocurrencies to be traded across blockchains. This allows trustless exchange of assets, quickly and efficiently. Here’s how they work in theory:
They are called ‘atomic’ swaps because the orders are either executed in their entirety, or not at all – a kind of fill-or-kill order. But while that’s useful up to a point, it doesn’t allow for active trading, like you would be able to do on an exchange.
Ergo’s implementation of atomic swaps develops the concept further. It’s relatively easy to swap coins or custom tokens trustlessly across any Bitcoin-like blockchains. But beyond that, Ergo allows partial swaps. Just like on a regular exchange, orders can be partially filled, if that’s what the trader wants.
This means it’s possible to build a fully-fledged decentralised exchange (DEX) that enables cross-chain trading: a totally trustless version of existing crypto exchanges. There’s no need for any gateways, token wrapping or other potential bottlenecks or points of failure.
You can find out more about Ergo’s implementation of atomic swaps and intra-chain and cross-chain token swaps in the ErgoScript white paper.
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Ergoplatform.org
submitted by kushti to ergoplatformorg [link] [comments]

Summary of the new IRS guidelines (TLDR include)

Hey all - I know there's a dozen posts about the new crypto tax deadlines - so apologies for making it a dozen plus one.
Full disclosure, I work for Bitcoin.Tax, where this article was published. I've included the link to our summary, as well as our actual summary. Also - I'll be talking with a crypto tax pro on our podcast about these guidelines soon. I usually post links to our podcast on this subreddit, so stay tuned (if you want...) for that in the next few days. Hopefully this helps some folks, as parts of the new guidelines are fairly ambiguous.
Link: https://bitcoin.tax/blog/irs-crypto-tax-faq/
TLDR:
Generally, this is the same as the advice and common practice used by taxpayers and accountants. Although, the exception here is the clarification of the specific identification rule. We'll talk about that below.
Summary:
The IRS has issued their long-awaited guidance on the tax treatment for cryptocurrencies. You can read their FAQ On Virtual Currency Transactions on the IRS website.
This is the first official guidance since the original 2014-21 notice in April 2014.

IRS Cryptocurrency Tax FAQ

We have gone into more detail for some of the main points in their FAQ.

Hard forks and airdrops

Despite peculiar wording by the IRS, they have confirmed that receipt of crypto from an airdrop or fork is to be treated as income, and so subject to income tax.
ordinary income equal to the fair market value of the new cryptocurrency when it is received, which is when the transaction is recorded on the distributed ledger, provided you have dominion and control over the cryptocurrency so that you can transfer, sell, exchange, or otherwise dispose of the cryptocurrency
However, these drops typically have no market (perhaps a futures market) until they have existed for a period of time, so establishing a value could be difficult. It is possible that the value could be zero right at that exact moment it is recorded on the distributed ledger.
In order to receive income, you must have dominion and control over these new crypto. This effectively means you must be able to manage it; typically you would have the private keys or it is immediately available in a custodial wallet or online account, e.g. Coinbase.
If the crypto doesn't appear in your wallet, or you don't get control of it until a later date, then that later date is used to calculated the USD income value.
This had been a common question among crypto traders: if BTC was forked off into a new "BTC" coin, which you might not even have been aware of, do you still have income? The answer is no. Unless, you subsequently get access to those new coins, in which case you do have income on the date you receive control.
When you have income for an airdrop or fork, this also sets the cost basis (value and date) for any subsequent capital gains calculations.

Fair Market Value (FMV)

FMV is used to give something a value, i.e. what it's worth. If you list a bike for sale, you might research the prices for which other people are selling. Those prices give a FMV. But it you sell your bike and someone buys it for $100, then the bike's FMV was $100.
With crypto, sometimes we need to know FMV because we are not trading directly for dollars.
For example, if you sell 1 BTC for 150 LTC, you are disposing of the 1 BTC at FMV. You need to know the USD value in order to know the proceeds and to calculate any capital gains or losses.
So, first, if this was traded on an exchange, we use the spot price on the exchange at that time. This is true even if the transaction was off-chain.
However, where no FMV exists, such as a peer-to-peer transaction, then you have to get the value from elsewhere.
So, secondly, use the FMV of the service or product you are exchanging. With the above bike example, say buying it with crypto, the FMV would be that of the bike itself (the price it would have sold for USD).
Lastly, when no value can be obtained, then use a service that provides a consistent worldwide indices value (the IRS are calling this an "explorer" but that is a confusing term as blockchain explorers may not provide a USD value). If you do not use an "explorer" value, you can use an "accurate representation of the cryptocurrency's market value". Much like with fiat, this means using an establish and consistent source.

FIFO and Specific Identification

Advice from most tax preparers and accountants has been to err on the side of caution and go with First-In First-Out (FIFO). Basically, if you bought 1 BTC for $9,000 and later another for $10,000, when you come to sell 1 BTC (or partial) you would use the cost of the first 1 BTC that you had acquired.
This is the default IRS cost basis method and would not be challenged.
Some taxpayers had filed using specific identification, where FIFO was not used and instead the "lot" that was sold was chosen from their wallets. Summary strategies could also be employed, such as Last-In First-Out (LIFO), where the basis of the most recently acquired crypto is used instead.
These other strategies, such as last-in first-out, closest-cost or lowest-cost, often try to minimize the gains per transaction and defer them until later.
This is the biggest change in the new IRS guidance and confirms that specific identification can be used. However, you must be able to document this, which the IRS describes as:
You may identify a specific unit of virtual currency either by documenting the specific unit’s unique digital identifier such as a private key, public key, and address, or by records showing the transaction information for all units of a specific virtual currency, such as Bitcoin, held in a single account, wallet, or address.This information must show (1) the date and time each unit was acquired, (2) your basis and the fair market value of each unit at the time it was acquired, (3) the date and time each unit was sold, exchanged, or otherwise disposed of, and (4) the fair market value of each unit when sold, exchanged, or disposed of, and the amount of money or the value of property received for each unit.
There is no guidance if any extra information should be reported, but it is generally the same information that is added to the 8949 form where capital gains are reported.

Gifts and Donations

Similar to gifts of stocks or property, the rules regarding cost basis have remained unchanged. Received gifts are not immediate income but you do still recognize an capital gains income when you later come to sell, exchange or dispose of the cryptocurrency.
You can use the original basis (with documentation) from the giver in order to make use of long-term gains. However, your received basis becomes the lesser of the giver's cost basis and the FMV of the gift on the date you received it. This is to prevent from gifting losses. Also, if you do not have documentation showing the gift cost basis, then your basis is zero, i.e. you must declare 100% as capital gains.
Donations to registered charities do not recognize income, gains or losses. The value of your charitable donation is the FMV on the date of the gift if you have held the crypto for more than a year. For a year or less, it is lesser of the crypto's cost basis or its FMV on the day of the gift.

What was not mentioned

There are still some key questions and ambiguities that tax professionals have been looking for clarification. For instance, with hard forks and airdrops, if you have the private keys but no software, does that count as control?
Airdrop and forks generally have no markets when they are created, so is there a zero FMV? And should you take the value only when you exercise control?
Can specific identification be used at will or must it be done consistently?
Were 1031 "like-kind" exchanges ever a valid approach before 2018?

Guidance is retroactive

Finally, be aware that IRS guidance is always retroactive, unless otherwise stated, and so should be applied to past and future crypto transactions. If you have not followed these rules then you should consult with your tax professional and may need to file an amendment.
---

Edit:
According to BitcoinTaxesMe:
I clarified a couple of the not mentioned ones with the IRS verbally yesterday. This isn't official guidance, but some insight into what the IRS is thinking:
"For instance, with hard forks and airdrops, if you have the private keys but no software, does that count as control?"
If you the software exists and you don't install it, but could have, it's income, even if installation presents a security risk.
"Airdrop and forks generally have no markets when they are created, so is there a zero FMV? And should you take the value only when you exercise control?"
There's no income recognized until you both have control and there's a way to sell it. So there's no way to take a zero basis, as soon as a market appears it triggers the 2nd prong.
I personally think both of these are insane.
submitted by Sal-BitcoinTax to BitcoinMarkets [link] [comments]

Mining: Weird Time to Start, a Good Time to Think

Mining: Weird Time to Start, a Good Time to Think
Well, it’s supposed to be an optimistic article about most promising mining cryptos, but then something happened. No one was too naive to believe that the events unfolded around the COVID-19 pandemic will not affect global markets, but the turbulence that occurred was very significant and, what is most sad, it is still very difficult to say how soon the situation will stabilize.
https://preview.redd.it/9xxheofluzp41.png?width=1024&format=png&auto=webp&s=cd8ca033faddf57ea041e82ceadee1037b8587f1
Many people were already bothered that crypto mining is becoming less profitable in 2020 and will be meaningless very soon, but even though big companies having bigger resources took over most of the industry, cryptocurrency mining using video cards remains available to common users and still has potential.
Despite, the volatility of the cryptocurrency market hashrate of the Bitcoin blockchain network yet remains almost at the same level and that is a quite positive sign. At the moment, the most reliable option seems to be to leave mining to large ASIC-farms and return when the stock panic subsides and the prospects will be clearer.
Although Bitcoin is still the most popular cryptocurrency on the market, every year the complexity of operations necessary for its production increases, and rewards fall (after halving in May 2020, we will talk about 6.25 BTC per block). For mining many altcoins, the threshold for entry is much lower, therefore it makes sense to look for a more profitable option among them.
But first, let’s try to understand a little what conditions we need for profitable mining.
There are several crucial aspects that determine how profitable mining will be. These are such obvious things as the price of the currency or the amount of reward for the generated block.
And this is the reason it is now very difficult to calculate the possible income. One way or another, the market price of altcoins depends on the position of bitcoin, which is experiencing bad times. For several months, the world of crypto mining has been preparing for the May halving, because the reduced supply led to a significant increase in prices. This time should not have been an exception, but now when bitcoin does not rise above $5500 and risks falling below $3500, we can only make vague guesses about its potential price in May. Many analysts tend to believe that closer to the middle of April, the negative effect of the crisis should be reduced, and positive expectations from halving and a large amount of cash from investors should have a positive impact on the price of bitcoin. Altcoins, as a rule, repeat the dynamics of the first cryptocurrency and will also continue their growth to historical highs in the year’s future.
Next, you should also pay attention to the complexity of mining because it affects the time and energy spent on generating the block. Do not forget about the cost of electricity in your region, as one extra-large bill can negate all your efforts to earn money on currency mining.
Do not forget about expenses on a mining rig and it’s amortisation.
In addition to the above, you should find out how practical the chosen currency is: whether it can be exchanged for fiat or more popular coins, what fees are charged by exchanges that work with it, and what reputation it has in general.
In order to avoid unpleasant mistakes, it is easier and more reliable to check the possible profit in one of the many calculators.

Best altcoins to mine in 2020

Monero is the currency with the highest anonymity rates, which stays attractive to many users and remains one of the strongest altcoins. The specific proof-of-work hashing algorithm does not allow ASIC-miners, so it is relatively easy to mine using personal computer’s processors and graphics cards. AMD graphic cards are preferable for this task, but NVidia suits as well. The current block reward is 2.47 XMR.
Litecoin is one of the oldest Bitcoin forks, but unlike it uses a different “Script” PoW algorithm which allows less powerful GPUs to mine coins. Litecoin is on the most popular, and successful Bitcoin forks and considered one of the most stable cryptocurrencies. Block mining reward is 12.5 LTC.
Ravencoin is another Bitcoin hardfork, and like Monero’s its X16R algorithm is practically unavailable for ASIC machines. Raven keeps gaining popularity for many reasons – it has faster block time, higher mining reward (5,000 RVN at the moment) and secure messaging system.
Dogecoin is not a joke anymore. Hard to believe, but this currency once made for fun, became one of the most valuable ones. Like Litecoin it uses Scrypt algorithm and great for mining with GPUs.
One more Bitcoin fork Bitcoin Gold was made specifically to kick out ASICs and clear the road for GPUs. It may not be the fastest-growing currency, but it is definitely one of the most stable.
That’s all for today. Stay safe, cause health is our most important asset.
Follow us on Medium, Twitter, Facebook, and Reddit to get StealthEX.io updates and the latest news about the crypto world. For all requests message us via [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
submitted by Stealthex_io to StealthEX [link] [comments]

Update TKEYSPACE 1.3.0 on Android

Update TKEYSPACE 1.3.0 on Android

https://preview.redd.it/6w93e0afttx41.png?width=1400&format=png&auto=webp&s=c00989612ec2d52eb522405e6b6a98bf875e08bb
Version 1.3.0 is a powerful update to TkeySpace that our team has been carefully preparing. since version 1.2.0, we have been laying the foundation for implementing new features that are already available in the current version.
Who cares about the security and privacy of their assets is an update for you.
TkeySpace — was designed to give You full control over your digital assets while maintaining an exceptional level of security, which is why there is no personal data in the wallet: phone number, the email address that could be compromised by hackers — no identity checks and other hassles, just securely save the backup phrase consisting of 12 words.

Briefly about the TkeySpace 1.3.0 update :

  • Code optimization and switching to AndroidX;
  • New section-Privacy;
  • Built-in TOR;
  • Selecting the privacy mode;
  • Selecting the recovery method for each currency;
  • Choosing the address format for Litecoin;
  • Enhanced validation of transactions and blocks in the network;
  • Disk space optimization;
  • Accelerated syncing;
  • Checking “double spending”;
  • The bloom filter to check for nodes;
  • Updating the Binance and Ethereum libraries;
  • A function to hide the balance;
  • Advanced currency charts;
  • Access to charts without authentication;
  • News section;
  • Browser for Tkeycoin;
  • Independent Commission entry for Bitcoin;
  • New digital currencies;
  • Digital currency exchange tab.

Code optimization and switching to AndroidX

A lot of work has been done on optimizing the code to speed up the application, improving the logic, synchronization speed, calculating the hash of cryptocurrencies, and successfully switching to AndroidX.

https://preview.redd.it/h3go5tzgttx41.png?width=1100&format=png&auto=webp&s=bf311efc73e3577c80f06a21d6b9317bb93ae989

New section: Privacy

  • Enable Tor;
  • Blockchain transaction (the selection of the privacy mode);
  • Blockchain recovery (choosing a recovery method);
https://preview.redd.it/iydfwuhittx41.png?width=1080&format=png&auto=webp&s=2ce7c489d893a2ab6b9d6fede57d8b94404edcfb

TOR

Starting with the current update, the TkeySpace wallet can communicate via the TOR network, includes new privacy algorithms, and supports 59 different currencies.

https://i.redd.it/kn5waeskttx41.gif
Tor is a powerful privacy feature for those who own large assets or live in places where the Internet is heavily censored.
Tor technology provides protection against traffic analysis mechanisms that compromise not only Internet privacy, but also the confidentiality of trade secrets, business contacts, and communications in General.
When you enable TOR settings, all outgoing traffic from the wallet will be encrypted and routed through an anonymous network of servers, periodically forming a chain through the Tor network, which uses multi-level encryption, effectively hiding any information about the sender: location, IP address, and other data.
This means that if your provider blocks the connection, you can rest easy — after all, by running this function, you will get an encrypted connection to the network without restrictions.

https://preview.redd.it/w9y3ax4mttx41.png?width=960&format=png&auto=webp&s=972e375fc26d479e8b8d2999f7659ec332e2af55
In TOR mode, the wallet may work noticeably slower and in some cases, there may be problems with the network, due to encryption, some blockchain browsers may temporarily not work. However, TOR encryption is very important when Internet providers completely block traffic and switching to this mode, you get complete freedom and no blocks for transactions.

Confidentiality of transactions (the Blockchain transaction)

The wallet can change the model of a standard transaction, mixing inputs and outputs, making it difficult to identify certain cryptocurrencies. In the current update, you can select one of several modes for the transaction privacy level: deterministic lexicographic sorting or shuffle mode.

Mode: Lexicographic indexing

Implemented deterministic lexicographic sorting using hashes of previous transactions and output indexes for sorting transaction input data, as well as values and scriptPubKeys for sorting transaction output data;
We understand that information must remain confidential not only in the interests of consumers but also in higher orders, financial systems must be kept secret to prevent fraud. One way to address these privacy shortcomings is to randomize the order of inputs and outputs.
Lexicographic ordering is a comparison algorithm used to sort two sets based on their Cartesian order within their common superset. Lexicographic order is also often referred to as alphabetical order or dictionary order. The hashes of previous transactions (in reverse byte order) are sorted in ascending order, lexicographically.
In the case of two matching transaction hashes, the corresponding previous output indexes will be compared by their integer value in ascending order. If the previous output indexes match, the input data is considered equal.

Shuffle Mode: mixing (random indexing)

To learn more about how “shuffle mode” works, we will first analyze the mechanisms using the example of a classic transaction. Current balance Of your wallet: 100 TKEY, coins are stored at different addresses:
x1. Address-contains 10 TKEY. x2. Address-contains 20 TKEY. x3. Address-contains 30 TKEY. x4. Address-contains 15 TKEY. x5. Address-contains 25 TKEY.
Addresses in the blockchain are identifiers that you use to send cryptocurrency to another person or to receive digital currency.
In a classic transaction, if you need to send, for example, 19 TKEY — 100 TKEY will be sent to the network for “melting” coins, 19 TKEY will be sent to the Recipient, and ~80.9 TKEY will return to the newly generated address for “change” in your wallet.

https://preview.redd.it/x595qwdottx41.png?width=806&format=png&auto=webp&s=d9c2ae5620a3410ed83f7e16c018165c8ab35844
In the blockchain explorer, you will see the transaction amount in the amount of 100 TKEY, where 80.99999679 TKEY is your change, 19 TKEY is the amount you sent and 0.00000321 is the transaction fee. Thus, in the blockchain search engine, most of your balance is shown in the transaction.

How does the shuffle mode work?

Let’s look at a similar example: you have 100 TKEY on your balance, and you need to send 19 TKEY.
x1. Address-contains 10 TKEY. x2. Address-contains 20 TKEY. x3. Address-contains 30 TKEY. x4. Address-contains 15 TKEY. x5. Address-contains 25 TKEY.
You send 19 TKEY, the system analyzes all your addresses and balances on them and selects the most suitable ones for the transaction. To send 19 TKEY, the miners will be given coins with x2. Addresses, for a total of 20 TKEY. Of these, 19 TKEY will be sent to the recipient, and 0.99999679 TKEY will be returned to Your new address as change minus the transaction fee.

https://preview.redd.it/doxmqffqttx41.png?width=1400&format=png&auto=webp&s=5c99ec41363fe50cd651dc0acab05e175416006a
In the blockchain explorer, you will see the transaction amount in the amount of 20 TKEY, where 0.99999679 TKEY is Your change, 19 TKEY is the amount you sent and 0.00000321 is the transaction fee.
The shuffle mode has a cumulative effect. with each new transaction, delivery Addresses will be created and the selection of debit addresses/s that are most suitable for the transaction will change. Thus, if you store 1,000,000 TKEY in your wallet and want to send 1 TKEY to the recipient, the transaction amount will not display most of your balance but will select 1 or more addresses for the transaction.

Selecting the recovery method for each digital currency (Blockchain restore)

Now you can choose the recovery method for each currency: API + Blockchain or blockchain.
Note: This is not a syncing process, but rather the choice of a recovery method for your wallet. Syncing takes place with the blockchain — regardless of the method you choose.
https://preview.redd.it/gxsssuxrttx41.png?width=1080&format=png&auto=webp&s=cd9fe383618dda0e990e86485652ff95652a8481

What are the differences between recovery methods?

API + Blockchain

In order not to load the entire history of the blockchain, i.e. block and transaction headers, the API helps you quickly get point information about previous transactions. For example, If your transactions are located in block 67325 and block 71775, the API will indicate to the node the necessary points for restoring Your balance, which will speed up the “recovery” process.
As soon as the information is received, communication with the peers takes place and synchronization begins from the control point, then from this moment, all subsequent block loading is carried out through the blockchain. This method allows you to quickly restore Your existing wallet.
‘’+’’ Speed.
‘’-’’ The API server may fail.

Blockchain

This method loads all block headers (block headers + Merkle) starting from the BIP44 checkpoint and manually validates transactions.
‘’+’’ It always works and is decentralized. ‘’-’’ Loading the entire blockchain may take a long time.

Why do I need to switch the recovery method?

If when creating a wallet or restoring it, a notification (!) lights up in red near the selected cryptocurrency, then most likely the API has failed, so go to SettingsSecurity CenterPrivacyBlockchain Restore — switch to Blockchain. Syncing will be successful.

Selecting the address format

You can choose the address format not only for Bitcoin but also for Litecoin. Legacy, SegWit, Native SegWit. Go to SettingsManage WalletsAddress Format.

https://preview.redd.it/nqj0nwutttx41.png?width=1080&format=png&auto=webp&s=fc04b8ee8339ab27d3203ff551013cda7aa9e8db

Working at the code level

Enhanced validation of transactions and blocks in the network

Due to the increased complexity in the Tkeycoin network, we have implemented enhanced validation of the tkeycoin consensus algorithm, and this algorithm is also available for other cryptocurrencies.

What is the advantage of the enhanced validation algorithm for the user

First, the name itself speaks for itself — it increases the security of the network, and second, by implementing the function — we have accelerated the work of the TkeySpace blockchain node, the application consumes even fewer resources than before.
High complexity is converted to 3 bytes, which ensures fast code processing and the least resource consumption on your device.

Synchronization

The synchronization process has been upgraded. Node addresses are added to the local storage, and instant synchronization with nodes occurs when you log in again.

Checking for double-spending

TkeySpace eliminates “double-spending” in blockchains, which is very valuable in the Bitcoin and Litecoin networks.
For example, using another application, you may be sent a fake transaction, and the funds will eventually disappear from the network and your wallet because this feature is almost absent in most applications.
Using TkeySpace — you are 100% sure that your funds are safe and protected from fraudulent transactions in the form of “fake” transactions.

The bloom filter to check for nodes

All nodes are checked through the bloom filter. This allows you to exclude fraudulent nodes that try to connect to the network as real nodes of a particular blockchain.
In practice, this verification is not available in applications, Tkeycoin — decided to follow a new trend and change the stereotypes, so new features such as node verification using the bloom filter and double-spending verification are a kind of innovation in applications that work with cryptocurrencies.

Updating the Binance and Ethereum libraries

Updated Binance and Ethereum libraries for interaction with the TOR network.

Interface

Function — to hide the balance

This function allows you to hide the entire balance from the main screen.

Advanced currency charts and charts without authentication

Detailed market statistics are available, including volumes, both for 1 day and several years. Select the period of interest: 1 day, 7 days, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, 2 years.
In version 1.3.0, you can access charts without authentication. You can monitor the cryptocurrency exchange rate without even logging in to the app. If you have a pin code for logging in, when you open the app, swipe to the left and you will see a list of currencies.

https://preview.redd.it/f3thqv1wttx41.png?width=1080&format=png&auto=webp&s=1906307f7ad1fd6db47bf270ce7c57185267b1a3

News

In the market data section — in the tkeyspace added a section with current news of the cryptocurrency market.

https://preview.redd.it/lz1e7ynxttx41.png?width=1080&format=png&auto=webp&s=b6f1858d8752cfc6187df5d7b8a2ce25813e2366

Blockchain Explorer for Tkeycoin

Transaction verification for Tkeycoin is now available directly in the app.

Independent Commission entry for Bitcoin

Taking into account the large volume of the Bitcoin network, we have implemented independent Commission entry — you can specify any Commission amount.
For other currencies, smart Commission calculation is enabled based on data from the network. The network independently regulates the most profitable Commission for the sender.

New digital currencies

The TkeySpace wallet supports +59 cryptocurrencies and tokens.

Cryptocurrencies

Tkeycoin (TKEY), Bitcoin (BTC), Litecoin (LTC), Ethereum (ETH), Bitcoin Cash (BCH), DASH, Binance (BNB), EOS.

Stablecoins

TrueUSD (TUSD), Tether USD (USDT), USD Coin (USDC), Gemini Dollar (GUSD), STASIS EURO (EURS), Digix Gold Token (DGX), Paxos Standard (PAX), PAX Gold (PAXG), Binance USD (BUSD), EOSDT, Prospectors Gold (PGL).

ERC-20, BEP2, and EOS tokens

Newdex (NDX), DigixDAO ERC-20 (DGD), Chainlink ERC-20 (LINK), Decentraland ERC-20 (MANA), EnjinCoin ERC-20 (ENJ), the Native Utility (NUT), 0x Protocol ERC-20 (ZRX), Aelf ERC-20 (ELF), Dawn DAO ERC-20 (AURA), Cashaaa BEP2 (CAS), Bancor ERC-20 (BNT), the Basic Attention Token ERC-20 (BAT), Golem ERC-20 (GNT), Mithril ERC-20 (MITH), MEETONE, NEXO ERC-20, Holo ERC-20 (HOT), Huobi Token ERC-20 (HT), IDEX ERC-20, IDEX Membership ERC-20 (IDXM), Bitcoin BEP2 (BTCB), Waltonchain ERC-20 (WTC), KuCoin Shares ERC-20 (KCS), Kyber Network Crystal ERC-20 (KNC), Loom Network ERC-20 (LOOM), Ripple (XRP), Everipedia (IQ), Loopring ERC-20 (LRC), Maker ERC-20 (MKR), the Status of the ERC-20 (SNT), Ankr Network BEP2 (ANKR), OmiseGO ERC-20 (OMG), ^ american English ERC-20 (^american English), Polymath ERC-20 (POLY), Populous ERC-20 (PPT), Pundi X ERC-20 (NPXS), Parser ERC-20 (REP), Revain ERC-20 (R), Binance ERC20 (BNB-ERC20), Gifto BEP2 (GTO).

Exchange of cryptocurrency

The “Limitless Crypto Exchange” tab is available for a quick transition to an unlimited exchange in 200 digital currencies — 10,000 currency pairs.

How do I update TkeySpace to version 1.3.0?

  1. Go to Google Play on your device — My apps and games — find TkeySpace in the list of apps — click Update.
  2. Go to Google Play on your device-write TkeySpace in the search — click on the app icon — Update.
After the update, you will need to restore your wallet.
submitted by tkeycoin to Tkeycoin_Official [link] [comments]

Building Ergo: Atomic Swaps

Because a blockchain is a siloed, self-contained system by design, interacting with other blockchain protocols is challenging. Atomic Swaps enable cross-chain exchange of digital assets, avoiding the need for centralised exchanges.
Blockchains are excellent at decentralised value transfer within their own domains. That is, you can send BTC to any Bitcoin address securely and easily, and you can send LTC to any Litecoin address securely and easily too.
But because blockchains are based on consensus between miners, they are not designed to interface with other blockchains. Trading assets on different blockchains has therefore traditionally involved third parties like exchanges and OTC desks – with all the risks and inefficiencies they bring.
Cross-chain swaps
Atomic swaps solve this problem by enabling cryptocurrencies to be traded across blockchains. This allows trustless exchange of assets, quickly and efficiently. Here’s how they work in theory:
They are called ‘atomic’ swaps because the orders are either executed in their entirety, or not at all – a kind of fill-or-kill order. But while that’s useful up to a point, it doesn’t allow for active trading, like you would be able to do on an exchange.
Ergo’s implementation of atomic swaps develops the concept further. It’s relatively easy to swap coins or custom tokens trustlessly across any Bitcoin-like blockchains. But beyond that, Ergo allows partial swaps. Just like on a regular exchange, orders can be partially filled, if that’s what the trader wants.
This means it’s possible to build a fully-fledged decentralised exchange (DEX) that enables cross-chain trading: a totally trustless version of existing crypto exchanges. There’s no need for any gateways, token wrapping or other potential bottlenecks or points of failure.
You can find out more about Ergo’s implementation of atomic swaps and intra-chain and cross-chain token swaps in the ErgoScript white paper.
submitted by eleanorcwhite to btc [link] [comments]

Building Ergo: Atomic Swaps

Because a blockchain is a siloed, self-contained system by design, interacting with other blockchain protocols is challenging. Atomic Swaps enable cross-chain exchange of digital assets, avoiding the need for centralised exchanges.
Blockchains are excellent at decentralised value transfer within their own domains. That is, you can send BTC to any Bitcoin address securely and easily, and you can send LTC to any Litecoin address securely and easily too.
But because blockchains are based on consensus between miners, they are not designed to interface with other blockchains. Trading assets on different blockchains has therefore traditionally involved third parties like exchanges and OTC desks – with all the risks and inefficiencies they bring.

Cross-chain swaps

Atomic swaps solve this problem by enabling cryptocurrencies to be traded across blockchains. This allows trustless exchange of assets, quickly and efficiently. Here’s how they work in theory:
They are called ‘atomic’ swaps because the orders are either executed in their entirety, or not at all – a kind of fill-or-kill order. But while that’s useful up to a point, it doesn’t allow for active trading, like you would be able to do on an exchange.
Ergo’s implementation of atomic swaps develops the concept further. It’s relatively easy to swap coins or custom tokens trustlessly across any Bitcoin-like blockchains. But beyond that, Ergo allows partial swaps. Just like on a regular exchange, orders can be partially filled, if that’s what the trader wants.
This means it’s possible to build a fully-fledged decentralised exchange (DEX) that enables cross-chain trading: a totally trustless version of existing crypto exchanges. There’s no need for any gateways, token wrapping or other potential bottlenecks or points of failure.
You can find out more about Ergo’s implementation of atomic swaps and intra-chain and cross-chain token swaps in the ErgoScript white paper.
submitted by eleanorcwhite to CryptoCurrencies [link] [comments]

Building Ergo: Atomic Swaps

Because a blockchain is a siloed, self-contained system by design, interacting with other blockchain protocols is challenging. Atomic Swaps enable cross-chain exchange of digital assets, avoiding the need for centralised exchanges.
Blockchains are excellent at decentralised value transfer within their own domains. That is, you can send BTC to any Bitcoin address securely and easily, and you can send LTC to any Litecoin address securely and easily too.
But because blockchains are based on consensus between miners, they are not designed to interface with other blockchains. Trading assets on different blockchains has therefore traditionally involved third parties like exchanges and OTC desks – with all the risks and inefficiencies they bring.
Cross-chain swaps
Atomic swaps solve this problem by enabling cryptocurrencies to be traded across blockchains. This allows trustless exchange of assets, quickly and efficiently. Here’s how they work in theory:
They are called ‘atomic’ swaps because the orders are either executed in their entirety, or not at all – a kind of fill-or-kill order. But while that’s useful up to a point, it doesn’t allow for active trading, like you would be able to do on an exchange.
Ergo’s implementation of atomic swaps develops the concept further. It’s relatively easy to swap coins or custom tokens trustlessly across any Bitcoin-like blockchains. But beyond that, Ergo allows partial swaps. Just like on a regular exchange, orders can be partially filled, if that’s what the trader wants.
This means it’s possible to build a fully-fledged decentralised exchange (DEX) that enables cross-chain trading: a totally trustless version of existing crypto exchanges. There’s no need for any gateways, token wrapping or other potential bottlenecks or points of failure.
You can find out more about Ergo’s implementation of atomic swaps and intra-chain and cross-chain token swaps in the ErgoScript white paper.
submitted by eleanorcwhite to CryptoMarkets [link] [comments]

Summary of the new IRS guidance

Link: https://bitcoin.tax/blog/irs-crypto-tax-faq/
The IRS has issued their long-awaited guidance on the tax treatment for cryptocurrencies. You can read their FAQ On Virtual Currency Transactions on the IRS website.
This is the first official guidance since the original 2014-21 notice in April 2014.

tl:dr;


Generally, this is the same as the advice and common practice used by taxpayers and accountants. Although, the exception here is the clarification of the specific identification rule. We'll talk about that below.

IRS Cryptocurrency Tax FAQ

We have gone into more detail for some of the main points in their FAQ.

Hard forks and airdrops

Despite peculiar wording by the IRS, they have confirmed that receipt of crypto from an airdrop or fork is to be treated as income, and so subject to income tax.
ordinary income equal to the fair market value of the new cryptocurrency when it is received, which is when the transaction is recorded on the distributed ledger, provided you have dominion and control over the cryptocurrency so that you can transfer, sell, exchange, or otherwise dispose of the cryptocurrency
However, these drops typically have no market (perhaps a futures market) until they have existed for a period of time, so establishing a value could be difficult. It is possible that the value could be zero right at that exact moment it is recorded on the distributed ledger.
In order to receive income, you must have dominion and control over these new crypto. This effectively means you must be able to manage it; typically you would have the private keys or it is immediately available in a custodial wallet or online account, e.g. Coinbase.
If the crypto doesn't appear in your wallet, or you don't get control of it until a later date, then that later date is used to calculated the USD income value.
This had been a common question among crypto traders: if BTC was forked off into a new "BTC" coin, which you might not even have been aware of, do you still have income? The answer is no. Unless, you subsequently get access to those new coins, in which case you do have income on the date you receive control.
When you have income for an airdrop or fork, this also sets the cost basis (value and date) for any subsequent capital gains calculations.
Bitcoin.Tax already looks up any current value, if known, for forks or airdrop symbols when they are added to the Income tab, otherwise a zero basis is used.

Fair Market Value (FMV)

FMV is used to give something a value, i.e. what it's worth. If you list a bike for sale, you might research the prices for which other people are selling. Those prices give a FMV. But it you sell your bike and someone buys it for $100, then the bike's FMV was $100.
With crypto, sometimes we need to know FMV because we are not trading directly for dollars.
For example, if you sell 1 BTC for 150 LTC, you are disposing of the 1 BTC at FMV. You need to know the USD value in order to know the proceeds and to calculate any capital gains or losses.
So, first, if this was traded on an exchange, we use the spot price on the exchange at that time. This is true even if the transaction was off-chain.
However, where no FMV exists, such as a peer-to-peer transaction, then you have to get the value from elsewhere.
So, secondly, use the FMV of the service or product you are exchanging. With the above bike example, say buying it with crypto, the FMV would be that of the bike itself (the price it would have sold for USD).
Lastly, when no value can be obtained, then use a service that provides a consistent worldwide indices value (the IRS are calling this an "explorer" but that is a confusing term as blockchain explorers may not provide a USD value). If you do not use an "explorer" value, you can use an "accurate representation of the cryptocurrency's market value". Much like with fiat, this means using an establish and consistent source.
Bitcoin.Tax already uses the exchange price data wherever possible, but otherwise combines crypto pricing for multiple worldwide sources to calculate a FMV.

FIFO and Specific Identification

Advice from most tax preparers and accountants has been to err on the side of caution and go with First-In First-Out (FIFO). Basically, if you bought 1 BTC for $9,000 and later another for $10,000, when you come to sell 1 BTC (or partial) you would use the cost of the first 1 BTC that you had acquired.
This is the default IRS cost basis method and would not be challenged.
Some taxpayers had filed using specific identification, where FIFO was not used and instead the "lot" that was sold was chosen from their wallets. Summary strategies could also be employed, such as Last-In Last-Out (LIFO), where the basis of the most recently acquired crypto is used instead.
These other strategies, such as last-in first-out, closest-cost or lowest-cost, often try to minimize the gains per transaction and defer them until later.
This is the biggest change in the new IRS guidance and confirms that specific identification can be used. However, you must be able to document this, which the IRS describes as:
You may identify a specific unit of virtual currency either by documenting the specific unit’s unique digital identifier such as a private key, public key, and address, or by records showing the transaction information for all units of a specific virtual currency, such as Bitcoin, held in a single account, wallet, or address. This information must show (1) the date and time each unit was acquired, (2) your basis and the fair market value of each unit at the time it was acquired, (3) the date and time each unit was sold, exchanged, or otherwise disposed of, and (4) the fair market value of each unit when sold, exchanged, or disposed of, and the amount of money or the value of property received for each unit.
There is no guidance if any extra information should be reported, but it is generally the same information that is added to the 8949 form where capital gains are reported.
Bitcoin.Tax already provides automatic calculations using multiple specific identification strategies so you can choose your cost basis lots. Navigate to the Calculate tab and you can see the values for each crypto you have traded.

Gifts and Donations

Similar to gifts of stocks or property, the rules regarding cost basis have remained unchanged. Received gifts are not immediate income but you do still recognize an capital gains income when you later come to sell, exchange or dispose of the cryptocurrency.
You can use the original basis (with documentation) from the giver in order to make use of long-term gains. However, your received basis becomes the lesser of the giver's cost basis and the FMV of the gift on the date you received it. This is to prevent from gifting losses. Also, if you do not have documentation showing the gift cost basis, then your basis is zero, i.e. you must declare 100% as capital gains.
Donations to registered charities do not recognize income, gains or losses. The value of your charitable donation is the FMV on the date of the gift if you have held the crypto for more than a year. For a year or less, it is lesser of the crypto's cost basis or its FMV on the day of the gift.
Bitcoin.Tax reports already splits out the basis for any gifts or donations that you make, which can be given to the recipient to provide them with the information they will require.

What was not mentioned

There are still some key questions and ambiguities that tax professionals have been looking for clarification. For instance, with hard forks and airdrops, if you have the private keys but no software, does that count as control?
Airdrop and forks generally have no markets when they are created, so is there a zero FMV? And should you take the value only when you exercise control?
Can specific identification be used at will or must it be done consistently?
Were 1031 "like-kind" exchanges ever a valid approach before 2018?

Guidance is retroactive

Finally, be aware that IRS guidance is always retroactive, unless otherwise stated, and so should be applied to past and future crypto transactions. If you have not followed these rules then you should consult with your tax professional and may need to file an amendment.
submitted by Sal-BitcoinTax to bitcointaxes [link] [comments]

Another notch in fair value's cap - An analysis from the University of Texas alleges Tether manipulation of BTC's price and cryptocurrency markets in general. Fair value remains wholly immune to such manipulation however!

Edit: This thread is being heavily downvoted, most likely by the Monero community which trolls and attacks this information whenever they get the opportunity. Originally around 15-20 upvotes, they make sure to keep it at 9-11 now. Fair value exposes that Monero's true economy is a small fraction of what exchange price says it is, thus the abject and instant hatred of this information. This is censorship and the Monero community should be shunned for engaging in it.
Link - University of Texas – Tether is used to provide price support and manipulate Bitcoin price
The most important parts:
First, if the Tether founders, like most early cryptocurrency adopters and exchanges, are long on Bitcoin, they have a large incentive to create an artificial demand for Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies by ’printing’ Tether. Similar to the inflationary effect of printing additional money, this can push cryptocurrency prices up.
Second, the coordinated supply of Tether creates an opportunity to manipulate cryptocurrencies. When prices are falling, the Tether creators can convert their Tether into Bitcoin in a way that pushes Bitcoin up and then sell some Bitcoin back into dollars to replenish Tether reserves as Bitcoin price rises.
Tether is created, moved to Bitfinex, and then slowly moved out to other crypto-exchanges, mainly Poloniex and Bittrex. Interestingly, almost no Tether returns to the Tether issuer to be redeemed, and the major exchange where Tether can be exchanged for USD, Kraken, accounts for only a small proportion of transactions. Tether also flows out to other exchanges and entities and becomes more widespread over time as a medium of exchange.
Ok, so here we are. We've discussed this before. As others have noticed, as well as myself this should be familiar territory, right? Tl;dr Fair value is a much better way for us to price our coins than using exchanges. Why is this? Well read the article and quote above. The site where they calculate it is:
https://www.coinfairvalue.com/
And their reference page for further reading is here:
https://www.coinfairvalue.com/reference/
The way this manipulation works is that these groups use Tether to support their assets and make them look better on exchanges. This is not inline with investor demands or activity, which means its speculation designed to create long term uncertainty in the real price of the underlying assets in question (BTC and so-called 'alt' coins). I.e. MANIPULATION. This is done mainly to force the narrative on us that BTC remains the huge dominating cryptocurrency with a majority of the market share.
Also, as another user points out in the comments, to make blockstream coins look bigger. So that's Monero, LTC and BTC. But it is all a mirage. By fair value, e.g. BTC is only about 30% of the entire community and falling. This is as opposed to BTC's ~60% dominance by exchange price.
Monero is even worse, on CMC Monero has a market cap of 1.54 billion. Fair value shows Monero's only worth $495,181,957 or 1/3rd its exchange market cap. Also don't forget that Monero's fair value was artificially 'boosted' by $10 early this year during a significant bear market that almost saw the coin destroyed. That boost was never removed, so Monero's fair value is likely $10 less than what it is now, making it even smaller.
BTC is not useful for POS. According to Ryan Taylor who is the CEO of Dash Core Group (DCG) the protocol developers for Dash, about 95% of retail payments still happen at the point of sale in real life. That means that if you can't do that you're not a real currency. We know that other coins such as Dash and Bitcoin Cash are faster and more reliable, plus they both offer at least wallet-level support for privacy features. BTC offers Wasabi but I'm not sure how usable it is with the fee situation.
The point is that, like some other coins, BTC's usage and dominance in the market is illusory. And the means by which that illusion is maintained is price rigging. THIS IS WHY WE NEED TO SWITCH TO FAIR VALUE. Fair value is IMMUNE to exchange price rigging. COMPLETELY. If it seems like I'm yelling its because I am. We literally have the solution to this problem staring us in the face for a year and a half at least now and do not use it.
Because it relies on intrinsic data for each coin, instead of external 'exchange pricing', fair value is immune to the following:
  1. to whale movements (large buys/sells on exchanges),
  2. price manipulation (because you'd have to control all four variables in order to manipulate it, which would require controlling all economic participants, so its kind of like POW in that you require a 51% majority to rewrite a block. With fair value, you need to control some majority of the actual chains economic activity to manipulate it. While with price OTOH you only have to control an average across a few low-liquidity exchanges, which is easy).
  3. BTC pricing of entire market, since fair value relies on each chain's data only and doesn't price one chain in the currency of another like exchanges do with BTC and the entire alt market
  4. Biases towards coins with larger supplies. Market cap = price * supply, but supply is an arbitrarily chosen number which means coins with larger supplies will be artificially larger than coins with smaller ones.This must be accounted for or discounted like the TDS - Total Discounted Supply that fair value uses. Basically, fair value is a pro-tool that allows us to peek behind the veil so to speak and see what the real value of our cryptocurrency economies are free from manipulation and bias. I.e. 'Fair'.
How is fair value immune to price manipulation?
Understand what fair value is and what price is. They are actually the same thing. The difference, however, comes in how they're calculated and arrive at their value. Exchange price is closer to an 'educated guess' than an actual measurement, so the example below is a bit more generous than it should be. Fair value, however, is a direct measurement of the value the people who own the coins are giving them away for. To vizualize this difference, imagine trying to figure out how fast a car is going on a stretch of road. Now, let's say you have two experimenters, exp. 1 and 2.
Exp 1 is given access to the total trip location data for the car as well as a data from the digital stopwatch used to time the run. The stopwatch starts as soon as the car crosses a laser sight at the beginning and the same at the end. Meanwhile, Exp 2 is given a stopwatch and told to stand at the finish line, visually confirm the beginning of the test, and start the stopwatch. Also, they are to stop the watch manually as soon as the car passes. Which experimenter is likely to have the more accurate conclusion of the car's velocity?
Its obvious that exp 1 should come out on top most of the time, but why? Because his data is more reliable than exp 2. Sure, if you gave exp 2 10 test laps to average it out, a coffee to keep from being bored, and a good stop watch you should be able to get some close results. But what if the experimenter has bad eyesight? Slow reaction time? Is malicious/paid off/biased for some reason?
In these cases, there's a lot more room to fudge the data and come up with bad answers. That's the difference between fair value and exchange price. Exchange price is an educated guess at what the people who hold cryptocurrencies think they're worth; however, this guess is almost completely disconnected from the blockchains themselves, since exchange trades happen almost entirely off-chain.
As you can see from this article, there are several flaws to the exchange pricing mechanism that allow easy manipulations to take place under cover of the sea of data that is crypto transactions. The entire market being priced in one asset (BTC) being a huge one. You can literally wipe billions of dollars of value out of the market using just one asset. Do we know any people who like doing things like that? Hmm, I wonder.
Fair value is cryptocurrency pricing done the right way. Using data from the blockchain, i.e.
  1. Daily transactions
  2. Total discounted Supply (different than just issued coins)
  3. Basket
  4. Velocity
Fair value is able to much more accurately assess the true price that the people who own the coins are selling them for. And because fair value comes from the chains themselves instead of exchanges, which do not make the vast majority of their trades on-chain, fair value is completely immune to every problem that plagues our price reviews on exchanges! Fair value is priced by each coin's data so no "BTC crashes entire market" again. No whale moves manipulating the price (unless its an actual whale making an actual price, but even then the larger the market becomes the more the whale turns into a minnow). No more Tether shenanningans! Fair value is what we didn't know we needed, way before we needed it.
submitted by thethrowaccount21 to btc [link] [comments]

Best General RenVM Questions of January 2020

Best General RenVM Questions of January 2020

‌*These questions are sourced directly from Telegram
Q: When you say RenVM is Trustless, Permissionless, and Decentralized, what does that actually mean?
A: Trustless = RenVM is a virtual machine (a network of nodes, that do computations), this means if you ask RenVM to trade an asset via smart contract logic, it will. No trusted intermediary that holds assets or that you need to rely on. Because RenVM is a decentralized network and computes verified information in a secure environment, no single party can prevent users from sending funds in, withdrawing deposited funds, or computing information needed for updating outside ledgers. RenVM is an agnostic and autonomous virtual broker that holds your digital assets as they move between blockchains.
Permissionless = RenVM is an open protocol; meaning anyone can use RenVM and any project can build with RenVM. You don't need anyone's permission, just plug RenVM into your dApp and you have interoperability.
Decentralized = The nodes that power RenVM ( Darknodes) are scattered throughout the world. RenVM has a peak capacity of up to 10,000 Darknodes (due to REN’s token economics). Realistically, there will probably be 100 - 500 Darknodes run in the initial Mainnet phases, ample decentralized nonetheless.

Q: Okay, so how can you prove this?
A: The publication of our audit results will help prove the trustlessness piece; permissionless and decentralized can be proven today.
Permissionless = https://github.com/renproject/ren-js
Decentralized = https://chaosnet.renproject.io/

Q: How does Ren sMPC work? Sharmir's secret sharing? TSS?
A: There is some confusion here that keeps arising so I will do my best to clarify.TL;DR: *SSS is just data. It’s what you do with the data that matters. RenVM uses sMPC on SSS to create TSS for ECDSA keys.*SSS and TSS aren’t fundamental different things. It’s kind of like asking: do you use numbers, or equations? Equations often (but not always) use numbers or at some point involve numbers.
SSS by itself is just a way of representing secret data (like numbers). sMPC is how to generate and work with that data (like equations). One of the things you can do with that work is produce a form of TSS (this is what RenVM does).
However, TSS is slightly different because it can also be done *without* SSS and sMPC. For example, BLS signatures don’t use SSS or sMPC but they are still a form of TSS.
So, we say that RenVM uses SSS+sMPC because this is more specific than just saying TSS (and you can also do more with SSS+sMPC than just TSS). Specifically, all viable forms of turning ECDSA (a scheme that isn’t naturally threshold based) into a TSS needs SSS+sMPC.
People often get confused about RenVM and claim “SSS can’t be used to sign transactions without making the private key whole again”. That’s a strange statement and shows a fundamental misunderstanding about what SSS is.
To come back to our analogy, it’s like saying “numbers can’t be used to write a book”. That’s kind of true in a direct sense, but there are plenty of ways to encode a book as numbers and then it’s up to how you interpret (how you *use*) those numbers. This is exactly how this text I’m writing is appearing on your screen right now.
SSS is just secret data. It doesn’t make sense to say that SSS *functions*. RenVM is what does the functioning. RenVM *uses* the SSSs to represent private keys. But these are generated and used and destroyed as part of sMPC. The keys are never whole at any point.

Q: Thanks for the explanation. Based on my understanding of SSS, a trusted dealer does need to briefly put the key together. Is this not the case?
A: Remember, SSS is just the representation of a secret. How you get from the secret to its representation is something else. There are many ways to do it. The simplest way is to have a “dealer” that knows the secret and gives out the shares. But, there are other ways. For example: we all act as dealers, and all give each other shares of our individual secret. If there are N of us, we now each have N shares (one from every person). Then we all individually add up the shares that we have. We now each have a share of a “global” secret that no one actually knows. We know this global secret is the sum of everyone’s individual secrets, but unless you know every individual’s secret you cannot know the global secret (even though you have all just collectively generates shares for it). This is an example of an sMPC generation of a random number with collusion resistance against all-but-one adversaries.

Q: If you borrow Ren, you can profit from the opposite Ren gain. That means you could profit from breaking the network and from falling Ren price (because breaking the network, would cause Ren price to drop) (lower amount to be repaid, when the bond gets slashed)
A: Yes, this is why it’s important there has a large number of Darknodes before moving to full decentralisation (large borrowing becomes harder). We’re exploring a few other options too, that should help prevent these kinds of issues.

Q: What are RenVM’s Security and Liveliness parameters?
A: These are discussed in detail in our Wiki, please check it out here: https://github.com/renproject/ren/wiki/Safety-and-Liveliness#analysis

Q: What are the next blockchain under consideration for RenVM?
A: These can be found here: https://github.com/renproject/ren/wiki/Supported-Blockchains

Q: I've just read that Aztec is going to be live this month and currently tests txs with third parties. Are you going to participate in early access or you just more focused on bringing Ren to Subzero stage?
A: At this stage, our entire focus is on Mainnet SubZero. But, we will definitely be following up on integrating with AZTEC once everything is out and stable.

Q: So how does RenVM compare to tBTC, Thorchain, WBTC, etc..?
A: An easy way to think about it is..RenVM’s functionality is a combination of tBTC (+ WBTC by extension), and Thorchain’s (proposed) capabilities... All wrapped into one. Just depends on what the end-user application wants to do with it.

Q1: What are the core technical/security differences between RenVM and tBTC?A1: The algorithm used by tBTC faults if even one node goes offline at the wrong moment (and the whole “keep” of nodes can be penalised for this). RenVM can survive 1/3rd going offline at any point at any time. Advantage for tBTC is that collusion is harder, disadvantage is obviously availability and permissionlessness is lower.
tBTC an only mint/burn lots of 1 BTC and requires an on-Ethereum SPV relay for Bitcoin headers (and for any other chain it adds). No real advantage trade-off IMO.
tBTC has a liquidation mechanism that means nodes can have their bond liquidated because of ETH/BTC price ratio. Advantage means users can get 1 BTC worth of ETH. Disadvantage is it means tBTC is kind of a synthetic: needs a price feed, needs liquid markets for liquidation, users must accept exposure to ETH even if they only hold tBTC, nodes must stay collateralized or lose lots of ETH. RenVM doesn’t have this, and instead uses fees to prevent becoming under-collateralized. This requires a mature market, and assumed Darknodes will value their REN bonds fairly (based on revenue, not necessarily what they can sell it for at current —potentially manipulated—market value). That can be an advantage or disadvantage depending on how you feel.
tBTC focuses more on the idea of a tokenized version of BTC that feels like an ERC20 to the user (and is). RenVM focuses more on letting the user interact with DeFi and use real BTC and real Bitcoin transactions to do so (still an ERC20 under the hood, but the UX is more fluid and integrated). Advantage of tBTC is that it’s probably easier to understand and that might mean better overall experience, disadvantage really comes back to that 1 BTC limit and the need for a more clunky minting/burning experience that might mean worse overall experience. Too early to tell, different projects taking different bets.
tBTC supports BTC (I think they have ZEC these days too). RenVM supports BTC, BCH, and ZEC (docs discuss Matic, XRP, and LTC).
Q2: This are my assumed differences between tBTC and RenVM, are they correct? Some key comparisons:
-Both are vulnerable to oracle attacks
-REN federation failure results in loss or theft of all funds
-tBTC failures tend to result in frothy markets, but holders of tBTC are made whole
-REN quorum rotation is new crypto, and relies on honest deletion of old key shares
-tBTC rotates micro-quorums regularly without relying on honest deletion
-tBTC relies on an SPV relay
-REN relies on federation honesty to fill the relay's purpose
-Both are brittle to deep reorgs, so expanding to weaker chains like ZEC is not clearly a good idea
-REN may see total system failure as the result of a deep reorg, as it changes federation incentives significantly
-tBTC may accidentally punish some honest micro-federations as the result of a deep reorg
-REN generally has much more interaction between incentive models, as everything is mixed into the same pot.
-tBTC is a large collection of small incentive models, while REN is a single complex incentive model
A2: To correct some points:
The oracle situation is different with RenVM, because the fee model is what determines the value of REN with respect to the cross-chain asset. This is the asset is what is used to pay the fee, so no external pricing is needed for it (because you only care about the ratio between REN and the cross-chain asset).
RenVM does rotate quorums regularly, in fact more regularly than in tBTC (although there are micro-quorums, each deposit doesn’t get rotated as far as I know and sticks around for up to 6 months). This rotation involves rotations of the keys too, so it does not rely on honest deletion of key shares.
Federated views of blockchains are easier to expand to support deep re-orgs (just get the nodes to wait for more blocks for that chain). SPV requires longer proofs which begins to scale more poorly.
Not sure what you mean by “one big pot”, but there are multiple quorums so the failure of one is isolated from the failures of others. For example, if there are 10 shards supporting BTC and one of them fails, then this is equivalent to a sudden 10% fee being applied. Harsh, yes, but not total failure of the whole system (and doesn’t affect other assets).
Would be interesting what RenVM would look like with lots more shards that are smaller. Failure becomes much more isolated and affects the overall network less.
Further, the amount of tBTC you can mint is dependent on people who are long ETH and prefer locking it up in Keep for earning a smallish fee instead of putting it in Compound or leveraging with dydx. tBTC is competing for liquidity while RenVM isn't.

Q: I understand correctly RenVM (sMPC) can get up to a 50% security threshold, can you tell me more?
A: The best you can theoretically do with sMPC is 50-67% of the total value of REN used to bond Darknodes (RenVM will eventually work up to 50% and won’t go for 67% because we care about liveliness just as much as safety). As an example, if there’s $1M of REN currently locked up in bonded Darknodes you could have up to $500K of tokens shifted through RenVM at any one specific moment. You could do more than that in daily volume, but at any one moment this is the limit.Beyond this limit, you can still remain secure but you cannot assume that players are going to be acting to maximize their profit. Under this limit, a colluding group of adversaries has no incentive to subvert safety/liveliness properties because the cost to attack roughly outweighs the gain. Beyond this limit, you need to assume that players are behaving out of commitment to the network (not necessarily a bad assumption, but definitely weaker than the maximizing profits assumption).

Q: Why is using ETH as collateral for RenVM a bad idea?
A: Using ETH as collateral in this kind of system (like having to deposit say 20 ETH for a bond) would not make any sense because the collateral value would then fluctuate independently of what kind of value RenVM is providing. The REN token on the other hand directly correlates with the usage of RenVM which makes bonding with REN much more appropriate. DAI as a bond would not work as well because then you can't limit attackers with enough funds to launch as many darknodes as they want until they can attack the network. REN is limited in supply and therefore makes it harder to get enough of it without the price shooting up (making it much more expensive to attack as they would lose their bonds as well).
A major advantage of Ren's specific usage of sMPC is that security can be regulated economically. All value (that's being interopped at least) passing through RenVM has explicit value. The network can self-regulate to ensure an attack is never worth it.

Q: Given the fee model proposal/ceiling, might be a liquidity issue with renBTC. More demand than possible supply?A: I don’t think so. As renBTC is minted, the fees being earned by Darknodes go up, and therefore the value of REN goes up. Imagine that the demand is so great that the amount of renBTC is pushing close to 100% of the limit. This is a very loud and clear message to the Darknodes that they’re going to be earning good fees and that demand is high. Almost by definition, this means REN is worth more.
Profits of the Darknodes, and therefore security of the network, is based solely on the use of the network (this is what you want because your network does not make or break on things outside the systems control). In a system like tBTC there are liquidity issues because you need to convince ETH holders to bond ETH and this is an external problem. Maybe ETH is pumping irrespective of tBTC use and people begin leaving tBTC to sell their ETH. Or, that ETH is dumping, and so tBTC nodes are either liquidated or all their profits are eaten by the fact that they have to be long on ETH (and tBTC holders cannot get their BTC back in this case). Feels real bad man.

Q: I’m still wondering which asset people will choose: tbtc or renBTC? I’m assuming the fact that all tbtc is backed by eth + btc might make some people more comfortable with it.
A: Maybe :) personally I’d rather know that my renBTC can always be turned back into BTC, and that my transactions will always go through. I also think there are many BTC holders that would rather not have to “believe in ETH” as an externality just to maximize use of their BTC.

Q: How does the liquidation mechanism work? Can any party, including non-nodes act as liquidators? There needs to be a price feed for liquidation and to determine the minting fee - where does this price feed come from?
A: RenVM does not have a liquidation mechanism.
Q: I don’t understand how the price feeds for minting fees make sense. You are saying that the inputs for the fee curve depend on the amount of fees derived by the system. This is circular in a sense?
A: By evaluating the REN based on the income you can get from bonding it and working. The only thing that drives REN value is the fact that REN can be bonded to allow work to be done to earn revenue. So any price feed (however you define it) is eventually rooted in the fees earned.

Q: Who’s doing RenVM’s Security Audit?
A: ChainSecurity | https://chainsecurity.com/

Q: Can you explain RenVM’s proposed fee model?
A: The proposed fee model can be found here: https://github.com/renproject/ren/wiki/Safety-and-Liveliness#fees

Q: Can you explain in more detail the difference between "execution" and "powering P2P Network". I think that these functions are somehow overlapping? Can you define in more detail what is "execution" and "powering P2P Network"? You also said that at later stages semi-core might still exist "as a secondary signature on everything (this can mathematically only increase security, because the fully decentralised signature is still needed)". What power will this secondary signature have?
A: By execution we specifically mean signing things with the secret ECDSA keys. The P2P network is how every node communicates with every other node. The semi-core doesn’t have any “special powers”. If it stays, it would literally just be a second signature required (as opposed to the one signature required right now).
This cannot affect safety, because the first signature is still required. Any attack you wanted to do would still have to succeed against the “normal” part of the network. This can affect liveliness, because the semi-core could decide not to sign. However, the semi-core follows the same rules as normal shards. The signature is tolerant to 1/3rd for both safety/liveliness. So, 1/3rd+ would have to decide to not sign.
Members of the semi-core would be there under governance from the rest of our ecosystem. The idea is that members would be chosen for their external value. We’ve discussed in-depth the idea of L<3. But, if RenVM is used in MakerDAO, Compound, dYdX, Kyber, etc. it would be desirable to capture the value of these ecosystems too, not just the value of REN bonded. The semi-core as a second signature is a way to do this.
Imagine if the members for those projects, because those projects want to help secure renBTC, because it’s used in their ecosystems. There is a very strong incentive for them to behave honestly. To attack RenVM you first have to attack the Darknodes “as per usual” (the current design), and then somehow convince 1/3rd of these projects to act dishonestly and collapse their own ecosystems and their own reputations. This is a very difficult thing to do.
Worth reminding: the draft for this proposal isn’t finished. It would be great for everyone to give us their thoughts on GitHub when it is proposed, so we can keep a persistent record.

Q: Which method or equation is used to calculate REN value based on fees? I'm interested in how REN value is calculated as well, to maintain the L < 3 ratio?
A: We haven’t finalized this yet. But, at this stage, the plan is to have a smart contract that is controlled by the Darknodes. We want to wait to see how SubZero and Zero go before committing to a specific formulation, as this will give us a chance to bootstrap the network and field inputs from the Darknodes owners after the earnings they can make have become more apparent.
submitted by RENProtocol to RenProject [link] [comments]

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